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21 Jun 11:30

No Copyright Law: The Real Reason for Germany's Industrial Expansion? - SPIEGEL ONLINE

by brandizzi

Did Germany experience rapid industrial expansion in the 19th century due to an absence of copyright law? A German historian argues that the massive proliferation of books, and thus knowledge, laid the foundation for the country's industrial might.

Photo Gallery: The Power of the Book
Getty Images

The entire country seemed to be obsessed with reading. The sudden passion for books struck even booksellers as strange and in 1836 led literary critic Wolfgang Menzel to declare Germans "a people of poets and thinkers."

"That famous phrase is completely misconstrued," declares economic historian Eckhard Höffner, 44. "It refers not to literary greats such as Goethe and Schiller," he explains, "but to the fact that an incomparable mass of reading material was being produced in Germany."

Höffner has researched that early heyday of printed material in Germany and reached a surprising conclusion -- unlike neighboring England and France, Germany experienced an unparalleled explosion of knowledge in the 19th century.

German authors during this period wrote ceaselessly. Around 14,000 new publications appeared in a single year in 1843. Measured against population numbers at the time, this reaches nearly today's level. And although novels were published as well, the majority of the works were academic papers.

The situation in England was very different. "For the period of the Enlightenment and bourgeois emancipation, we see deplorable progress in Great Britain," Höffner states.

Equally Developed Industrial Nation

Indeed, only 1,000 new works appeared annually in England at that time -- 10 times fewer than in Germany -- and this was not without consequences. Höffner believes it was the chronically weak book market that caused England, the colonial power, to fritter away its head start within the span of a century, while the underdeveloped agrarian state of Germany caught up rapidly, becoming an equally developed industrial nation by 1900.

Even more startling is the factor Höffner believes caused this development -- in his view, it was none other than copyright law, which was established early in Great Britain, in 1710, that crippled the world of knowledge in the United Kingdom.

Germany, on the other hand, didn't bother with the concept of copyright for a long time. Prussia, then by far Germany's biggest state, introduced a copyright law in 1837, but Germany's continued division into small states meant that it was hardly possible to enforce the law throughout the empire.

Höffner's diligent research is the first academic work to examine the effects of the copyright over a comparatively long period of time and based on a direct comparison between two countries, and his findings have caused a stir among academics. Until now, copyright was seen as a great achievement and a guarantee for a flourishing book market. Authors are only motivated to write, runs the conventional belief, if they know their rights will be protected.

Yet a historical comparison, at least, reaches a different conclusion. Publishers in England exploited their monopoly shamelessly. New discoveries were generally published in limited editions of at most 750 copies and sold at a price that often exceeded the weekly salary of an educated worker.

London's most prominent publishers made very good money with this system, some driving around the city in gilt carriages. Their customers were the wealthy and the nobility, and their books regarded as pure luxury goods. In the few libraries that did exist, the valuable volumes were chained to the shelves to protect them from potential thieves.

In Germany during the same period, publishers had plagiarizers -- who could reprint each new publication and sell it cheaply without fear of punishment -- breathing down their necks. Successful publishers were the ones who took a sophisticated approach in reaction to these copycats and devised a form of publication still common today, issuing fancy editions for their wealthy customers and low-priced paperbacks for the masses.

A Multitude of Treatises

This created a book market very different from the one found in England. Bestsellers and academic works were introduced to the German public in large numbers and at extremely low prices. "So many thousands of people in the most hidden corners of Germany, who could not have thought of buying books due to the expensive prices, have put together, little by little, a small library of reprints," the historian Heinrich Bensen wrote enthusiastically at the time.

The prospect of a wide readership motivated scientists in particular to publish the results of their research. In Höffner's analysis, "a completely new form of imparting knowledge established itself."

Essentially the only method for disseminating new knowledge that people of that period had known was verbal instruction from a master or scholar at a university. Now, suddenly, a multitude of high-level treatises circulated throughout the country.

The "Literature Newspaper" reported in 1826 that "the majority of works concern natural objects of all types and especially the practical application of nature studies in medicine, industry, agriculture, etc." Scholars in Germany churned out tracts and handbooks on topics such as chemistry, mechanics, engineering, optics and the production of steel.

In England during the same period, an elite circle indulged in a classical educational canon centered more on literature, philosophy, theology, languages and historiography. Practical instruction manuals of the type being mass-produced in Germany, on topics from constructing dikes to planting grain, were for the most part lacking in England. "In Great Britain, people were dependent on the medieval method of hearsay for the dissemination of this useful, modern knowledge," Höffner explains.

The German proliferation of knowledge created a curious situation that hardly anyone is likely to have noticed at the time. Sigismund Hermbstädt, for example, a chemistry and pharmacy professor in Berlin, who has long since disappeared into the oblivion of history, earned more royalties for his "Principles of Leather Tanning" published in 1806 than British author Mary Shelley did for her horror novel "Frankenstein," which is still famous today.

'Lively Scholarly Discourse'

The trade in technical literature was so strong that publishers constantly worried about having a large enough supply, and this situation gave even the less talented scientific authors a good bargaining position in relation to publishers. Many professors supplemented their salaries with substantial additional income from the publication of handbooks and informational brochures.

Höffner explains that this "lively scholarly discourse" laid the basis for the Gründerzeit, or foundation period, the term used to describe the rapid industrial expansion in Germany in the late 19th century. The period produced later industrial magnates such as Alfred Krupp and Werner von Siemens.

The market for scientific literature didn't collapse even as copyright law gradually became established in Germany in the 1840s. German publishers did, however, react to the new situation in a restrictive way reminiscent of their British colleagues, cranking up prices and doing away with the low-price market.

Authors, now guaranteed the rights to their own works, were often annoyed by this development. Heinrich Heine, for example, wrote to his publisher Julius Campe on October 24, 1854, in a rather acerbic mood: "Due to the tremendously high prices you have established, I will hardly see a second edition of the book anytime soon. But you must set lower prices, dear Campe, for otherwise I really don't see why I was so lenient with my material interests."

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20 Jun 17:14

Mr. Rogers's Simple Set of Rules for Talking to Kids - The Atlantic

by brandizzi

For the millions of adults who grew up watching him on public television, Fred Rogers represents the most important human values: respect, compassion, kindness, integrity, humility. On Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, the show that he created 50 years ago and starred in, he was the epitome of simple, natural ease.

But as

I write in my forthcoming book, The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers, Rogers’s placidity belied the intense care he took in shaping each episode of his program. He insisted that every word, whether spoken by a person or a puppet, be scrutinized closely, because he knew that children—the preschool-age boys and girls who made up the core of his audience—tend to hear things literally.

As Arthur Greenwald, a former producer of the show, put it to me, “There were no accidents on Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood.” He took great pains not to mislead or confuse children, and his team of writers joked that his on-air manner of speaking amounted to a distinct language they called “Freddish.”

Fundamentally, Freddish anticipated the ways its listeners might misinterpret what was being said. For instance, Greenwald mentioned a scene in a hospital in which a nurse inflating a blood-pressure cuff originally said “I’m going to blow this up.” Greenwald recalls: “Fred made us redub the line, saying, ‘I’m going to puff this up with some air,’ because ‘blow it up’ might sound like there’s an explosion, and he didn’t want the kids to cover their ears and miss what would happen next.”

The show’s final cuts reflected many similarly exacting interventions. Once, Rogers provided new lyrics for the “Tomorrow” song that ended each show to ensure that children watching on Friday wouldn’t expect a show on Saturday, when the show didn’t air. And Rogers’s secretary, Elaine Lynch, remembered how, when one script referred to putting a pet “to sleep,” he excised it for fear that children would be worried about the idea of falling asleep themselves.

Rogers was extraordinarily good at imagining where children’s minds might go. For instance, in a scene in which he had an eye doctor using an ophthalmoscope to peer into his eyes, he made a point of having the doctor clarify that he wasn’t able to see Rogers’s thoughts. Rogers also wrote a song called “You Can Never Go Down the Drain” because he knew that drains were something that, to kids, seemed to exist solely to suck things down.

In 1977, about a decade into the show’s run, Arthur Greenwald and another writer named Barry Head cracked open a bottle of scotch while on a break, and coined the term Freddish. They later created an illustrated manual called “Let’s Talk About Freddish,” a loving parody of the demanding process of getting all the words just right for Rogers. “What Fred understood and was very direct and articulate about was that the inner life of children was deadly serious to them,” said Greenwald.

Per the pamphlet, there were nine steps for translating into Freddish:

  1. “State the idea you wish to express as clearly as possible, and in terms preschoolers can understand.” Example: It is dangerous to play in the street. ​​​​​​
  2. “Rephrase in a positive manner,” as in It is good to play where it is safe.
  3. “Rephrase the idea, bearing in mind that preschoolers cannot yet make subtle distinctions and need to be redirected to authorities they trust.” As in, “Ask your parents where it is safe to play.”
  4. “Rephrase your idea to eliminate all elements that could be considered prescriptive, directive, or instructive.” In the example, that’d mean getting rid of “ask”: Your parents will tell you where it is safe to play.
  5. “Rephrase any element that suggests certainty.” That’d be “will”: Your parents can tell you where it is safe to play.
  6. “Rephrase your idea to eliminate any element that may not apply to all children.” Not all children know their parents, so: Your favorite grown-ups can tell you where it is safe to play.
  7. “Add a simple motivational idea that gives preschoolers a reason to follow your advice.” Perhaps: Your favorite grown-ups can tell you where it is safe to play. It is good to listen to them.
  8. “Rephrase your new statement, repeating the first step.” “Good” represents a value judgment, so: Your favorite grown-ups can tell you where it is safe to play. It is important to try to listen to them.
  9. “Rephrase your idea a final time, relating it to some phase of development a preschooler can understand.” Maybe: Your favorite grown-ups can tell you where it is safe to play. It is important to try to listen to them, and listening is an important part of growing.

Rogers brought this level of care and attention not just to granular details and phrasings, but the bigger messages his show would send. Hedda Sharapan, one of the staff members at Fred Rogers’s production company, Family Communications, Inc., recalls Rogers once halted taping of a show when a cast member told the puppet Henrietta Pussycat not to cry; he interrupted shooting to make it clear that his show would never suggest to children that they not cry.

In working on the show, Rogers interacted extensively with academic researchers. Daniel R. Anderson, a psychologist formerly at the University of Massachusetts who worked as an advisor for the show, remembered a speaking trip to Germany at which some members of an academic audience raised questions about Rogers’s direct approach on television. They were concerned that it could lead to false expectations from children of personal support from a televised figure. Anderson was impressed with the depth of Rogers’s reaction, and with the fact that he went back to production carefully screening scripts for any hint of language that could confuse children in that way.

In fact, Freddish and Rogers’s philosophy of child development is actually derived from some of the leading 20th-century scholars of the subject. In the 1950s, Rogers, already well known for a previous children’s TV program, was pursuing a graduate degree at The Pittsburgh Theological Seminary when a teacher there recommended he also study under the child-development expert Margaret McFarland at the University of Pittsburgh. There he was exposed to the theories of legendary faculty, including McFarland, Benjamin Spock, Erik Erikson, and T. Berry Brazelton. Rogers learned the highest standards in this emerging academic field, and he applied them to his program for almost half a century.

This is one of the reasons Rogers was so particular about the writing on his show. “I spent hours talking with Fred and taking notes,” says Greenwald, “then hours talking with Margaret McFarland before I went off and wrote the scripts. Then Fred made them better.” As simple as Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood looked and sounded, every detail in it was the product of a tremendously careful, academically-informed process.

This article is adapted from Maxwell King’s forthcoming book, The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers.

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20 Jun 12:34

How to Introduce a "New" Superhero

by Scott Meyer

Having two or more superheroes with similar or identical powers is not uncommon, even within the same company. DC has Captain Marvel and Superman, Plastic Man and Elongated Man. Marvel has the Human Torch and . . . The Human Torch. Both Human Torches have roughly identical powers, the main difference between them being that the first one was an android, not a human, which bothers me to no end.


As always, thanks for using my Amazon Affiliate links (USUKCanada).

20 Jun 12:33

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Right


Click here to go see the bonus panel!

We are entering a golden age where we constantly surveil each other but are scared to wave from across a fence.

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20 Jun 12:10

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Infinite Power


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I have nothing pithy to add, but I'm really happy with how the shoes came out in the last panel.

Today's News:
20 Jun 12:09


by Reza

18 Jun 11:12

Rui? Nome de goleiro português é palavrão dos fortes na Rússia

by Fábio Aleixo

De todos os jogadores da Copa do Mundo, não existe um que tenha nome tão feio para os russos como o goleiro de Portugal, Rui Patrício.

Por isso mesmo, na TV, costumam a se referir a ele apenas como Patrício e até a grafia de seu primeiro nome é alterada para publicação em jornais, de Хуй (RRui – som de dois erres) para Руй (Rui, som de erre entre vogais).

É mais ou menos a situação no Brasil do técnico da seleção austríaca , que se chama Franco Foda.

Isso acontece pois a palavra Хуй é um dos termos mais chulos do vocabulário russo, um palavrão dos bravos.

É tão feio que em 2014 o presidente Vladimir Putin instituiu um lei que quem for pego falando esta palavra em público pode receber até 2.500 rublos de multa (aproximadamente R$ 150).

Foi também decretada uma proibição para que aparecesse em obras de cinema, teatro e literatura.

Mas você deve estar curioso. O que significa Хуй?

É o termo chulo para se referir ao pênis. Algo como “cara…” Dependendo do contexto pode ser também entendido como “vai se f…”.

Portanto, se você se chamar Rui e estiver ou for para a Rússia tome cuidado para pronunciar seu nome para não ofender alguém e criar um incidente.

Outras palavrões que não devem ser falados.

Пизда (Pizda é o jeito vulgar de referir à vagina)
Ебать (Ebat significa f…-se)
блядь (Bliad é o jeito vulgar de se referir a uma prostituta)

16 Jun 02:52

Hey y’all! I’m gonna be at Heroescon in Charlotte, NC this...

Hey y’all! I’m gonna be at Heroescon in Charlotte, NC this weekend, with Webtoon. Booth 2200. I hope to see some of you there!

16 Jun 02:51

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Border


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I'm embarrassed to say I've apparently been beaten to this idea by a few people, including two-time BAHFest winner, Louis Evans. There are too many nerds writing jokes these days, dammit.

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16 Jun 02:46

Customer Rewards

We'll pay you $1.47 to post on social media about our products, $2.05 to mention it in any group chats you're in, and 11 cents per passenger each time you drive your office carpool past one of our billboards.
16 Jun 02:44

Namoro de outro mundo

by Will Tirando

16 Jun 02:41


by Reza

16 Jun 02:38

Wilde Hühner

by Doug

Wilde Hühner

Today’s comic looks a little different, because I really am in Germany this week. Without my usual comics-making gear, I’ll have to improvise a little!

16 Jun 02:37

Attention Span

I didn't even realize they MADE a novelization of "Surf Ninjas." How did you-- Oh my god, it's signed by the author?!
16 Jun 02:36

wine fraud

16 Jun 02:30

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Dreams of Flight

Adam Victor Brandizzi

Discordo, avião é muito massa.

Click here to go see the bonus panel!

Actually, let's invent supersonic flight, then decide it's a bit too loud and give up.

Today's News:
16 Jun 02:29


by Fonder

A matter of great urgency.

This comic brought to you courtesy of my amazing patrons. Special thanks to:
‘Benaryorg’, Karen Carpenter, Julia, Dan Cunningham, Giz, Yuliya Levina, Jonna Märijärvi, and Coté Nicholas

08 Jun 11:58

Two Mommies

by Shyam Ramani

Bonus Panel

The post Two Mommies appeared first on Fowl Language Comics.

08 Jun 11:57

This Turtle

by Reza

08 Jun 00:38

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - State of the Union


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I'm gonna start a graphic novel about a world where there are no crowds, buildings, bicycles, cars, or horses.

Today's News:
01 Jun 16:44


by Grant

01 Jun 16:42


29 May 11:32

Cat Zen Tip 4

by Doug

Cat Zen Tip 4

And more zen.

29 May 10:57

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Help


New comic!

Today's News:
29 May 10:56


by Laerte Coutinho

28 May 21:04


Adam Victor Brandizzi

Nobody does, child, nobody does.

27 May 18:16

Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - Quantum Bits


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The more elegant the physics theory, the more it is ruined by butts.

New comic!
Today's News:
27 May 18:15

Comic for May 27, 2018

by Scott Adams
27 May 17:35

shifting priorities and digital transformation

by tomfishburne
Adam Victor Brandizzi

Also valid for product management (and all things software engineering)

We’re all working in a time of perennial change. Marketing priorities are frequently a moving target. This climate can create a sort of organizational Attention-Deficit Disorder.

Nowhere is this more prevalent than in the push toward digital transformation. Gartner released a study a few weeks ago that found senior executives were rapidly shifting priorities to embrace digital business.

And yet, while adapting to changing circumstances is essential, continually shifting priorities takes a toll. It’s hard to prioritize when everything is a priority. A shift at the leadership team level can have a bullwhip effect on the rest of the organization.

And, as Gartner noted in a separate study, many businesses confuse digital transformation with prioritizing isolated digital projects. As Gartner’s Val Sribar put it:

“Many businesses are stuck running digital projects. Some of them are very large, but digital projects are not a digital business.”

Here are a few related cartoons I’ve drawn over the years.

Digital Transformation” November 2016

Shiny Object Syndrome” January 2015

Organizational Bullwhip” July 2008

27 May 00:38

Acidente de laboratório no Ceará poderá amenizar a poluição em todo o mundo - TecMundo

by brandizzi

“Eu estava estudando sobre a cristalização de polímeros e tive que deixar um material na estufa do laboratório. Aí eu comecei a conversar com meus colegas e, quando me dei conta, vi que estufa estava pegando fogo”. Esse acidente que Myllena da Silva, de 19 anos, descreveu ao TecMundo durante a Intel ISEF 2018 – a maior feira de ciências do mundo – aconteceu em um dos laboratórios de química do Instituto Federal do Ceará, mas seus desdobramentos poderão ajudar a combater a poluição no mundo inteiro.

Será possível evitar que navios petroleiros contaminem o mar com resquícios de óleo que ficam em seu lastro

Com o trabalho que Myllena desenvolveu a partir do que descobriu com esse acidente, será possível evitar que navios petroleiros contaminem o mar com resquícios de óleo que ficam em seu lastro. E com a ajuda de uma bactéria, a estudante também consegue criar um ciclo fechado para reciclagem de isopor, transformando o produto em sua própria matéria prima depois de alguns passos.

Mas vamos começar pelo início. Ao fazer um exercício prático com polímeros, Myllena acabou criando “cristais de isopor”. “Eu levei o material em chamas rapidamente para a pia e, quando joguei água, eu causei um choque térmico, e isso gerou uma superfície lisa no recipiente do material, que eu agora chamo de cristal liso”, contou a estudante. Por tocar fogo na estufa do laboratório, Myllena ficou proibida de usar as instalações por 30 dias. “Nesse intervalo, eu fiquei aprendendo mais sobre os polímeros e alguns problemas relacionados a eles”, disse.

Myllena da SilvaMyllena da Silva foi finalista da Intel ISEF pela segunda vez e, neste ano, foi duplamente premiada

Quando voltou, ela percebeu que esses cristais lisos repeliam líquidos e imaginou que poderia usar esse elemento para evitar o vazamento de óleo em navios petroleiros. Segundo os testes dela, o material realmente funciona para este fim.

Com um outro procedimento, Myllena também conseguiu transformar isopor em um material cristalino, mas dessa vez poroso. Colocando nisso uma bactéria conhecida por degradar isopor e plásticos, ela percebeu que o processo de decomposição bacteriano se dava muito mais rápido a partir dos cristais. Naturalmente, essas criaturas levariam mais de 150 anos para devorar o isopor tradicional, mas para comer os cristais porosos, elas levaram apenas sete meses.

Por curiosidade, eu fui verificar o que as bactérias excretavam, e descobri que era o óleo de etileno, que é a matéria prima do isopor. Então eu descobri um ciclo fechado

O mais curioso de tudo isso foi a análise do subproduto gerado pela degradação dos cristais pelas bactérias, a excreção delas após comerem o isopor cristalizado. “Por curiosidade, eu fui verificar o que as bactérias excretavam, e descobri que era o óleo de etileno, que é a matéria prima do isopor. Então eu descobri um ciclo fechado”, explicou a jovem.

Esse ciclo fechado acontece basicamente pelo fato de ela utilizar o produto industrializado, o isopor, para produzir a sua própria matéria prima após alguns processamentos. Em outras palavras, é possível recolher isopor descartado incorretamente no meio ambiente, ou mesmo fazer uma coleta seletiva do material nas cidades, e reciclá-lo em sua totalidade.

Myllena da Silva apresentou seu trabalho na Intel ISEF 2018, que aconteceu em Pittsburgh, EUA, na última semana. Por conta disso, ela levou dois prêmios especiais na feira, tendo sido convidada a estudar em duas universidades norte-americanas (Universidade do Arizona e Universidade Estadual do Arizona) diferentes com bolsas integrais.

myllena da silvaPor conta de sua descoberta, a estudante poderá escolher em qual universidade do Arizona, EUA, poderá estudar

“É algo inacreditável. Uma semana atrás, eu estava dizendo que não sabia falar inglês e que eu talvez não conseguisse apresentar meu trabalho nessa língua. Agora subir ao palco da maior feira de ciências do mundo e ser premiada com duas bolsas de estudo de universidades diferentes é algo inacreditável”, disse Myllena após a premiação da ISEF 2018.

Maracujá para a indústria têxtil

Outra estudante brasileira que mostrou um trabalho focado no combate à poluição durante a Intel ISEF 2018 foi Juliana Estradioto. Ela tem 17 anos e cursa o ensino médio no Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Diferente de Myllena, contudo, Juliana resolveu processar resíduos agroindustriais produzidos em sua cidade, Osório-RS. Estamos falando de palha e arroz, semente e casca de maracujá, além de outros.

Com a semente de maracujá em especial, Juliana conseguiu resultados impressionantes. Ela utilizou uma espécie de farinha feita com isso para neutralizar resíduos tóxicos produzidos pela indústria têxtil. Juliana chama esses resíduos de “efluente”, a água que sai da linha de produção de tecido misturada com tintura usada para dar cor às nossas roupas.

Quando descartado diretamente em rios sem tratamento, esse efluente pode contaminar a água e impedir que ela seja naturalmente oxigenada. Com isso, nenhum animal ou planta aquática pode sobreviver. Existe uma forma de tratar esse efluente para se obter água “limpa” novamente, mas o procedimento á caro.

Juliana EstradiotoJuliana ganhou uma bolsa para estudar na Universidade do Arizona, a mesma que também premiou Myllena

É aí que entra a semente de maracujá. Com um “biossorvente” produzido a partir desse material orgânico, Juliana conseguiu absorver 97% da coloração/tintura do efluente, transformando o material em água praticamente limpa, que poderia ser utilizada novamente na indústria. Só com a produção de maracujá da região onde a estudante mora, seria possível tratar 50 bilhões de litros de efluente. Além disso, esse processo seria 39% mais barato que o tratamento convencional.

Para mim, a parte mais importante do meu projeto é poder usar os resíduos agroindustriais da minha cidade para fazer o tratamento do efluente que é gerado no meu estado

“Para mim, a parte mais importante do meu projeto é poder usar os resíduos agroindustriais da minha cidade para fazer o tratamento do efluente que é gerado no meu estado”, contou Juliana ao TecMundo. “O que mais me deixa feliz é poder contribuir para solucionar esses problemas ambientais”.

Mas, infelizmente, a motivação de Juliana em buscar uma solução para o efluente têxtil tem origem em uma tragédia. Em 2006, centenas de toneladas de peixes apareceram mortos da noite para o dia no Rio dos Sinos, no RS. Posteriormente, as autoridades determinaram que a causa foi o descarte de esgoto doméstico e, principalmente, de efluente têxtil no rio. Na época, o Rio dos Sinos fornecia água potável para mais de 1 milhão de pessoas. Para a estudante, esse é um dos problemas que a “Fast Fashion” pode trazer para o meio ambiente.

Por sua pesquisa, Juliana Estradioto também foi premiada na ISEF 2018 com uma bolsa integral da Universidade do Arizona, nos EUA.

O TecMundo viajou para Pittsburgh a convite da Intel.

Cupons de desconto TecMundo:

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