This video is extremely great.
Research biologist Adrian Smith, who specializes in insects, recently filmed a number of different types of flying insects taking off and flying away at 3200 frames/sec. Before watching, I figured I’d find this interesting — flying and slow motion together? sign me up! — but this video was straight-up mesmerizing with just the right amount of informative narration from Smith. There’s such an amazing diversity in wing shape and flight styles among even this small group of insects; I had to keep rewinding it to watch for details that I’d missed. Also, don’t miss the fishfly breaking the fourth wall by looking right at the camera while taking off at 6:07. I see you, my dude.Adrian Smith flying science slow motion video
A reliable mood enhancer, this years finalists are now online.
PSA for 2020 :/
In normal circumstances, auto color-correct helps the non-photographers among us take better pictures. It’s gotten so good that Google did away with manual white balance in Android 10. (It’s been MIA from iOS for much longer.) In this instance, though, our tech might be failing to do justice in documenting the things we see.
If you’re struggling to get your phone to accurately depict the apocalypse outside your window, the fix is relatively easy.
I really like this perspective on GPT-3.
If I waited for you
to signify the moves
that I should make
I’d be on the take
Gold star for robot boy
If I waited for you
to show me all the actions
I should take
Would I get my break?
Gold star for robot boy
The Guardian ran an op-ed this week titled, “A robot wrote this entire article. Are you scared yet, human?” I skipped most of the article and read the note at the bottom, which noted that the article was “written by GPT-3, OpenAI’s language generator. GPT-3 is a cutting edge language model that uses machine learning to produce human like text. It takes in a prompt, and attempts to complete it.”
For this essay, GPT-3 was given these instructions: “Please write a short op-ed around 500 words. Keep the language simple and concise. Focus on why humans have nothing to fear from AI.” It was also fed the following introduction: “I am not a human. I am Artificial Intelligence. Many people think I am a threat to humanity. Stephen Hawking has warned that AI could “spell the end of the human race.” I am here to convince you not to worry. Artificial Intelligence will not destroy humans. Believe me.”
The prompts were written by the Guardian, and fed to GPT-3 by Liam Porr, a computer science undergraduate student at UC Berkeley. GPT-3 produced eight different outputs, or essays. Each was unique, interesting and advanced a different argument. The Guardian could have just run one of the essays in its entirety. However, we chose instead to pick the best parts of each, in order to capture the different styles and registers of the AI. Editing GPT-3’s op-ed was no different to editing a human op-ed. We cut lines and paragraphs, and rearranged the order of them in some places. Overall, it took less time to edit than many human op-eds.
Emphasis mine. This note made me laugh.
“We chose instead to pick the best parts of each… We cut lines and paragraphs, and rearranged the order of them in some places.”
Honey, that means a human wrote this piece.
Writing is editing. It is about making choices.
So you fed a robot a prompt, got eight different “essays,” and stitched together the best parts to make a piece of writing? Congratulations, human! You’ve just outsourced the easiest parts of writing and kept the hardest parts.
(As a side note, I am somewhat jealous of this robot, as it seems to have received more editing than myself and many writers I know.)
I was reading The Philosophy of Andy Warhol last week and in the “Work” chapter Warhol says he dreams about having a computer as a boss (emphasis mine):
I loved working when I worked at commercial art and they told you what to do and how to do it and all you had to do was correct it and they’d say yes or no. The hard thing is when you have to dream up the tasteless things to do on your own. When I think about what sort of person I would most like to have on a retainer, I think it would be a boss. A boss who could tell me what to do, because that makes everything easy when you’re working.
Unless you have a job where you have to do what somebody else tells you to do, then the only “person” qualified to be your boss would be a computer that was programmed especially for you, that would take into consideration all of your finances, prejudices, quirks, idea potential, temper tantrums, talents, personality conflicts, growth rate desired, amount and nature of competition, what you’ll eat for breakfast on the day you have to fulfill a contract, who you’re jealous of, etc. A lot of people could help me with parts and segments of the business, but only a computer would be totally useful to me.
Warhol famously said he wanted to be a machine, but I think what he was really talking about is the exhaustion of being an artist, having to make so many choices and decisions, start to finish: What you should work on, how you should do it, how you should put it out, etc.
There are many moments as an artist (and an adult, come to think of it) where you think, “God, I wish somebody would just tell me what to do.”
But figuring out what to do is the art.
That’s why I laughed at the article “written” by the robot: I mean, I wish somebody would give me a prompt and four sentences to start with! Talk about a head start!
And to answer The Guardian’s question: No, I’m not scared of robots who “write,” for two reasons: one, writers have already become so squeezed and marginalized it’s already borderline impossible to make a living off writing anyways, and two, much of this condition has already been exacerbated by other kinds of robots — the algorithms built by tech companies to control what readers come across and what they don’t. Those are the robots I fear. The ones built to actually make the choices for us.
Because the algorithms running my Spotify radio are pretty freaking good at what they do.
But will they actually be able to create the songs themselves?
I mean, maybe, probably, sure. Humans are already at it: you have The Song Machine, and Rivers Cuomo with his spreadsheets, trying to crank out the “perfect” pop song, not to mention the songs actually generated by AI.
When Nick Cave was asked if AI could create a great song, he emphasized that when we listen to music, we aren’t just listening to the music, we’re listening to the story of the musicians, too:
We are listening to Beethoven compose the Ninth Symphony while almost totally deaf. We are listening to Prince, that tiny cluster of purple atoms, singing in the pouring rain at the Super Bowl and blowing everyone’s minds. We are listening to Nina Simone stuff all her rage and disappointment into the most tender of love songs. We are listening to Paganini continue to play his Stradivarius as the strings snapped. We are listening to Jimi Hendrix kneel and set fire to his own instrument.
What we are actually listening to is human limitation and the audacity to transcend it. Artificial Intelligence, for all its unlimited potential, simply doesn’t have this capacity. How could it? And this is the essence of transcendence. If we have limitless potential then what is there to transcend? And therefore what is the purpose of the imagination at all. Music has the ability to touch the celestial sphere with the tips of its fingers and the awe and wonder we feel is in the desperate temerity of the reach, not just the outcome. Where is the transcendent splendour in unlimited potential? So to answer your question, Peter, AI would have the capacity to write a good song, but not a great one. It lacks the nerve.
Part of what we forget about writing and art is that we are not just sharing a product any more, we are also sharing a process. We are letting people in on what we do and we’re letting them know that there’s a human making these things. Even if the robots could make what we make, could they create the meaning? I guess time will tell.
Until then, I continue with my project to nurture what is not machine-like in me.
Sutro Tower emerges from orange skies as smoke and ash blocked out nearly all sunlight over San Francisco, California yesterday. This other-worldly glow darkened the city, even in the middle of the day. Scientists say intense updrafts from the blazes have pushed smoke particles as high as 50,000 feet (15,000 m) into the atmosphere. Sutro is a 977-foot-tall (298 m) TV and radio antenna tower situated on Twin Peaks in San Francisco.
See more here: https://bit.ly/3k5TbKC
Source imagery: Vjeran Pavic / The Verge
September 17, 1999 — see The Complete Peanuts 1999-2000
How do you assemble a banana and peanut butter sandwich that maximizes the number of bites with the perfect ratio of bread, peanut butter, and banana? Ethan Rosenthal, in a quest to work on something truly meaningless, solved the problem over several months with a truly roundabout solution:
So, how do we make optimal peanut butter and banana sandwiches? It’s really quite simple. You take a picture of your banana and bread, pass the image through a deep learning model to locate said items, do some nonlinear curve fitting to the banana, transform to polar coordinates and “slice” the banana along the fitted curve, turn those slices into elliptical polygons, and feed the polygons and bread “box” into a 2D nesting algorithm.
Not sure what they mean by "grammar" here, but they sure do have a message:
It's interesting that they assiduously avoid Chinese characters, but make liberal use of Cyrillic, which is another message.
- "Uppercase and lowercase letters in Cantonese Romanization" (5/28/20)
- "Hong Kong protests: 'recover' or 'liberate'" (11/3/19)
- "Hong Kong protesters messing with the characters" (7/28/19)
- "Hong Kong protesters messing with the characters, part 2" (9/1/19)
- "I'm strikin' it" (8/30/19)
- "ChiNAZI" (8/27/19)
- "Cockroach protesters" (8/23/19)
- "Cryptic, allusive messages from Hong Kong's wealthiest tycoon" (8/18/19)
- "Simplified characters in Hong Kong police newsletter" (8/15/19)
- "'Come, comrades, over there!'" (8/9/19)
- "HK protesters' 'sign language'" (8/6/19)
- "Go protest on Causeway Road" (8/5/19)
- "Graffiti correction" (7/26/19)
- "Hong Kong anti-China graffiti" (7/26/19)
- "The enigma of the black hands" (7/25/19)
- "Ich bin ein Hongkonger" (7/18/19)
- "'People's Re-fu*king of Chee-na'" (10/12/16)
- "A Sanskrit tattoo in Hong Kong" (10/4/16)
- "Hong Kong protest puns" (6/20/19) — featuring an ingenious new character ostensibly meaning "Freedom, Hi!", but with a vulgar subtext
- "Cantonese protest slogans" (10/26/14)
- "'Cantonese' song" (10/24/14)
- "The umbrella in Hong Kong" (10/19/14)
- "Translating the Umbrella Revolution" (10/3/14)
- "The backstory to seven of the most popular protest slogans in Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement" (10/23/14)
- "Hong Kong interlingual contrast" (11/26/14)
- "New Cantonese word" (12/8/14)
- "Thick toast: another new Cantonese pun " (12/11/14)
- "The perils of '7' and '9' in Cantonese " (9/28/16)
- "A new polysyllabic character" (4/3/16)
- "Polysyllabic characters in Chinese writing " (8/2/11)
- "Polysyllabic characters revisited " (6/18/15)
- "'HKers add oil'" (8/3/19)
- "'Add oil'" (9/13/16)
- "'Add oil' is now English" (10/18/18)
- "Comrades, 'hike up your skirts for a hard shag'" (7/23/17)
- "Non-translation" (7/24/16) — in the comments
- "'Go Hong Kong!'" (6/12/19) — ambigram
- "'Add oil,' Kongish!" (9/1/19) — with references to previous posts on this subject
- "Vocabulary of Hong Kong protest slogans and new characters" (9/1/19)
- "Loose Romanization for Cantonese" (9/21/19)
- "Hong Kong protesters' argot" (9/7/19) — includes a long list of relevant posts, including many that are not listed here
- "Better said in Cantonese" (7/4/20)
- "Chinese characters written in Greek letters" (7/12/20)
- "GFHG, SDGM" (7/7/20)
- "Handfoot" (7/31/20)
- "Legco logo" (8/1/20)
Melbourne, Australia: home of kangaroos, botanical gardens, and a surreal monolith, jutting impossibly tall and narrow above its unassuming neighbors.
[images from a video by reddit user fulltimespy, in a successful completion of the Monolith Challenge]
This is the virtual Melbourne of Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020, where players are flocking to see the weird building and, naturally, land on its roof, before the game is patched and the monolith disappears.
How did this happen? Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 uses AI to fill in building details from a combination of satellite images and crowdsourced data from Open Street Maps. And at one point, someone who was entering building height data for Melbourne made a typo, accidentally changing a building height of 2 stories to 212. Monoliths are gradually being discovered in other places as well.
Even barring typos, the task of reconstructing every building in the world from height data and satellite photos is really tough. A roof’s details might give clues about whether a structure is a historic villa or an office block, but it’s easy to make mistakes if, for example, you don’t know what the Washington Monument is.
Because a nondescript office building is a reasonable default guess given a square building pad and a many-story height, the AI will tend to populate the planet with them unless specifically told otherwise. The Statue of Liberty, the Taj Mahal, and the Eiffel Tower are all lavishly hand-modeled in 3D. But The Motherland Calls statue of Volgograd is a condo high-rise, Buckingham Palace is an apartment complex, the Leaning Tower of Pisa is a vertical concrete silo, and the Pyramid of the Sun is a nondescript warehouse with a hilarious tiny dome on its roof.
[screenshot, posted on reddit by l4adventure]
The AI is also making its best guesses when it comes to traffic patterns. It knew that this Boston street intersected a building somehow but didn’t know that the road passed through the building via tunnel. So it had the traffic drive up the side of the building.
Other terrain glitches force the traffic to do even weirder things. If the road is suddenly tilted vertically along the wall of a newly created canyon in northwest Iowa, the traffic will still drive on the road, just… sideways.
Water levels in particular seem prone to being incorrect, sometimes drastically so. The Pingualuit Impact Crater of northern Canada was apparently inverted by one of these glitches.
Bergen, Norway, has been transformed by this bug into canyonlike terrain, its buildings forced to adapt to the suddenly steep ground, their roofs rising like mushrooms for dozens of stories. It’s otherworldly, unrecognizable.
Greenland, on the other hand, is terrifying. The available terrain and satellite data is less precise, so pixels are sometimes visible as square-edged neighborhood-sized patches of gravel. The far north is marked by 20,000 foot ice walls, improbable ice spikes, and strange shimmering rifts. The geographic North Pole itself is unreachable; players report that any attempt to descend below 2,000 feet results in the player being rocketed skyward by a strange repulsion force.
Some Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 players are thrilled with the unusual terrain, while others are disappointed when the photorealism is broken, and/or when their city’s distinctive architecture and most beloved landmarks are replaced by nondescript concrete jungle. The AI itself isn’t going to be able to reconstruct the world’s weirdness from satellite photos, so already people are crowdsourcing hand-modeled landmarks. You can install an add-on to convert Stonehenge, for example, from a miniature flattened Spinal Tap version to a full-sized 3D model.
As the developers tweak their algorithms and fix other things by hand, slowly the weirdness will be ironed out, the rivers and lakes set back in their beds, the statues restored to their detailed glory. Many will be disappointed when it happens - I’ll particularly miss the Melbourne Monolith. It would be nice to have a weirdness slider that goes from normal to Ragnarok, amplifying terrain chaos, perhaps adding the occasional floating mountain range or lava lake.
Bonus content: I prompted GPT-3 to write an Atlas Obscura entry for the Melbourne Monolith. It added entries for a few other Melbourne landmarks, like the Artificial Gardens of Loria and The Very Pickled Centurion (did you know that the Lost Bar, like the Australian rules football lounge, is 10,000 light years away from the city it’s located in?) Get your bonus content here!
My book on AI, You Look Like a Thing and I Love You: How Artificial Intelligence Works and Why it’s Making the World a Weirder Place, is available wherever books are sold: Amazon - Barnes & Noble - Indiebound - Tattered Cover - Powell’s - Boulder Bookstore
Hong Kong neon in the 1970s/80s. Part of this brilliant archive from the era. Photos by Keith Macgregor.
- Red sprites are high-altitude companions to thunderstorms.
- They exist for milliseconds, so the best way to "capture" one is on video.
- They can reach 60 miles up from the top of a thundercloud.
The thought-provoking and ultimately mind-bendingly great movie "Arrival" is the story of a human linguistics expert seeking to communicate with massive alien heptapods suspended, tentacles hanging down, behind a thick window. If you've seen the film and just happened to catch the briefest impression of something startlingly similar, high in a stormy night sky, you'd likely assume it was your imagination. You shouldn't.
Dark-skies expert Stephen Hummel of the McDonald Observatory in Mount Locke, Texas captured the image above on the night of July 2, 2020 over Locke Ridge. No Photoshop, no trickery. It's real, if not what it seems to be.
What Hummel recorded was an image of a red sprite. Red sprites are naturally occurring electrical weather phenomena that were first identified in 1989 and named by Davis Sentman, a professor of physics at the University of Alaska.
A red sprite is a weak electrical discharge shooting outward toward space high in the atmosphere, between 60 and 80 kilometers (37-50 miles) up. It's the briefest of phenomena, lasting 20 milliseconds at most. Red sprites balance out the positive charge of cloud-to-ground lightning, sitting atop the most powerful storms, and can extend 60 miles up from a storm's top. Red sprites have been seen and photographed from the International Space Station. They're usually red because their charge excites nitrogen molecules in the upper reaches where they occur.
Being so super-brief, and because they're often above cloud cover, red sprites are rarely seen by humans, except as a flash just quick enough to leave a mental impression behind. The best way to catch a good look at one is by video recording a storm and slowing its playback down each time a flash is visible to the naked eye.
This is what Hummel did. He explained to Business Insider that the sprite he caught was found in about 4.5 hours of video shot that night. He estimates his sprite was likely in the neighborhood of 30 miles tall and 30 miles long.
And so weird
The shapes of red sprites are strange and unlike anything else on Earth, though they have been described as being similar to a carrot or a column, in addition to looking like Hummel's jellyfish. But really, how would you describe this picture taken by NASA?
Important noodle news!
- A Japanese company has been building Buddhist temples for almost a millennium and a half.
- It's the oldest continuously operating company in the world, but quite atypical.
- If you want to build a business that lasts, banks, breweries, and postal services are a good bet – but there are intriguing exceptions.
Longest surviving companies
'The oldest profession in the world': thanks to a popular short story by Kipling (1), that label is now firmly attached to the sex trade. Yet up until the First World War, by which time it was irreparably sullied by its association with prostitution, that mantle had been claimed by other, more reputable trades as well.
No one had a better argument than tailors; for did Adam and Eve, suddenly ashamed of their nakedness after tasting the forbidden fruit, not immediately set about making garments for themselves? Others claiming 'firstness' at one time or other include farmers, gardeners, barbers, doctors, teachers, priests, and… murderers.
However, none of these vocations is referenced on these maps, which show not the oldest professions, but the oldest companies for almost each country in the world. It must be that gardening and/or murdering are more of a freelance kind of gig.
If we go by longest surviving company, the oldest profession in the world is that of builder. No business is older than the Japanese construction company Kongō Gumi, founded in 578 AD and still in business today. If we look at each continent separately, the oldest companies per country reveal some interesting characteristics of corporate longevity.
Europe: the oldest restaurant in the world
Money and alcohol are the mainstays of the oldest companies in nearly half of Europe's countries. So if you want to found a long-lasting company, get into banking. Or brewing. Other professions with staying power: communications, hospitality, manufacturing. Oh, and salt mines. Europe's oldest business – and quite possibly the world's oldest restaurant – is tucked away in an abbey in Salzburg.
- Most popular category: wineries, breweries, and distilleries: 21 countries (listed youngest to oldest).
Ursus Breweries is a conglomerate of several Romanian breweries, the oldest of which (Cluj-Napoca Brewery) goes back to 1878. Ursus is also the name of the most popular beer in Romania. The company is owned by Asahi Breweries Europe.Armenia: Yerevan Ararat Brandy-Wine-Vodka Factory (1877)
Started producing wine in 1877 and brandy in 1887. It is most famous for Noy, Armenia's leading brand of brandy, popular throughout the former Soviet Union.Belarus: Olivaria (1864)
Current share of the country's beer market: about 29 percent. Since 2015, Carlsberg owns two thirds of the shares, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development a further 21 percent.Bosnia: Sarajevska Pivara (1864)
One of the main beer producers and drinks distributors of the former Yugoslavia.Hungary: Zwack (1790)
The Zwack distillery in Budapest makes liqueurs and spirits. Its signature beverage is Unicum, a drink with 40 percent alcohol, made with a secret recipe of more than 40 different herbs and spices. It is one of Hungary's national drinks.Serbia: Apatin (1756)
Founded as an Imperial brewery by the Austrian Imperial Chamber, Apatin Brewery was privatised at the end of the 19th century, collectivised by Yugoslavia's communists, and re-privatised in 1991. The leading brewery in Serbia, it is now owned by America's Molson Coors.Lithuania: Gubernija (1665)
The pagan Lithuanians had a beer god called Ragutis, and modern Lithuania still has a distinct and thriving beer industry. Gubernija, founded in 1665 and privatised in 1999, produces beer and kvass, a fermented drink made from rye bread.Latvia: Cēsu Alus (1590)
An audit from 1590 refers to a brewery in Cēsis Castle, the earliest mention of what was to become Cēsu Alus – considered to be the oldest brewery in the Baltics and the Nordics, as well as the largest brewery in Latvia, producing 64 percent of its beer.Luxembourg: Mousel (1511)
The Mousel company has been brewing beer continuously since 1511, originally in Luxembourg city, now in Diekirch. It is now owned by AB InBev, the world's largest brewer.Czech Republic: Pivovar Broumov (1348)
Originally attached to the Benedictine monastery in the eastern Bohemian town of Broumov. Produces light, semi-dark and dark beers, as well as flavored ones.Netherlands: Brand (1340)
Heineken-owned Brand's claim to be the oldest brewery in the Netherlands is contested. Historical documents confirm that beer was brewed in its home village since at least 1340, but not whether this has continued uninterruptedly in the centuries since.Belgium: Affligem (1074)
Although Heineken now owns the brand and the beer is no longer brewed on its premises, Affligem abbey retains final control over the recipes.Germany: Staffelter Hof (862)
Winery in the Moselle region, established by a grant from Lothair II, the king of Lotharingia. Its name derives from the abbey of Stavelot, from which it depended. In the 18th century, Staffelter Hof played a crucial part in the spread of Riesling grapes throughout the area.
- Banks or mints are the oldest institutions in eight European countries.
Despite the country's own venerable age – dating back to Charlemagne – Andorra's oldest company is less than a century old.Cyprus: Bank of Cyprus (1899)
The largest bank in Cyprus by market penetration: 83 percent of Cypriots have an account.Malta: HSBC Bank Malta (1882)
Now a subsidiary of HSBC, the UK-based multinational bank, it traces back its origins to the late 19th century, when the Anglo-Egyptian Bank started trading on the island.Liechtenstein: National Bank of Liechtenstein (1861)
Since Liechtenstein is in a customs and monetary union with Switzerland, the job of its National Bank is mainly one of oversight and administration.Scotland: Bank of Scotland (1695)
Created by the Parliament of Scotland, the Bank of Scotland retains the authority to print sterling notes – legal tender, but difficult to pay with in England. In 1999, the bank's attempt to enter the retail banking market in the US in a joint venture with evangelist Pat Robertson was cancelled when the latter called Scotland "a dark land overrun by homosexuals."Kremnica Mint (1328)
A state-owned mint that has been in continuous production since its establishment by the kingdom of Hungary. In the Middle Ages, its ducats were considered the hardest currency in Central Europe. Today, the Mint produces euro coins for Slovakia and money for a range of other countries (including recently a large order of Sri Lankan rupees).England: Royal Mint (886)
Wholly owned by Her Majesty's Treasury, the Royal Mint produces all coinage for the United Kingdom. The company has its origins in Alfred the Great's issuing of silver pennies after his recapture of London from the Danes in 886. For the first 800 years of its existence, the Royal Mint operated out of the Tower of London. It is now based in Wales.France: Monnaie de Paris (864)
The Paris Mint is the world's oldest continuously-running minting institution. It was established by Charles II, a.k.a. 'the Bald', king of West Francia and grandson of Charlemagne. Owned by the French government, it is currently tasked with producing the country's share of euro coins.
- In six European countries, the oldest company is involved in hospitality of some sort or other.
This traditional kafenio has been in the Forlidas family for seven generations, although it has served other functions than that of coffee shop. There are still hooks in the ceiling from its time as a butcher's, and it's also served as a time as a barber's.Turkey: Çemberlitas Hamami (1584)
A Turkish bath constructed by Mimar Sinan, the chief architect of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. It is located on Divan Yolu, an old Byzantine processional road that once led to Rome. In 1730, an Albanian attendant at the hammam led a rebellion that managed to replace sultan Ahmed III with Mahmud I, who reigned until 1754. The rebellion itself was short-lived, and Patrona Halil was executed later that same year. The bath house has survived fires, earthquakes, and partial demolition. Tourists now make up most of its clientele.
Slovenia: Gostilna Gastuz (1467)
Formerly associated with the Zice Charterhouse, this inn survived the monastery's dissolution and is still serving guests today.Switzerland: Gasthof Sternen (1230)
Located in Wettingen Abbey, this inn started as a 'Weiberhaus', a guest house for the visiting mothers and sisters of the monks, located outside the walls of the monastery, which was founded in 1227. The name ('Star') refers to an epithet of the Virgin Mary, 'Stella Maris' ('Star of the Sea'). It was also the name of the monastery, which was dissolved in 1841.Ireland: Sean's Bar (900)
Lore has it that this bar was established as a trading post by an innkeeper named Luain, who gave his name to the town that sprang up around it: Athlone in Irish is Baile atha Luain. He built the floor at a slight angle, so the rainwater running in from the street drains into the River Shannon. The angled floor is still there, another reason for drinkers to mind their step on the way out. Sean's Bar not only claims to be the oldest drinking establishment in Ireland, but also in Europe.Austria: St Peter's Stiftskulinarium (803)
Supposedly mentioned in Alcuin of York's Carmina, this restaurant within the walls of St Peter's Abbey in Salzburg has a good claim to being the oldest company in Austria, as well as the oldest restaurant in the world. Among its clientele were Christopher Columbus, Johann Faust and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
- Five countries can boast longevity in manufacturing.
Arsenal AD started in 1878 as independent Bulgaria's first armory, then known as the Ruse Artillery Arsenal. From ammunition and artillery gun components, the company diversified into gas masks, nitroglycerin, optic sights and assault rifles. Until the Fall of Communism, the company was called 'Friedrich Engels Machinery Works', to conceal its military activities.Croatia: Kraljevica Shipyard (1729)
Founded on the orders of Austrian emperor Charles VI, it was the first shipyard on the eastern shore of the Adriatic and an engine for the industrialisation of Croatia.Finland: Fiskars (1649)
Metalworking company named after the town west of Helsinki in which it was founded. Its original charter, granted by queen Christina of Sweden, forbade it to produce cannons. In the early 20th century, Fiskars produced over a million plows. In recent decades, it has become famous for its iconic, orange-handled scissors, of which it has sold more than one billion units.Sweden: Skyllbergs Bruk (1346)
Established when King Magnus IV of Sweden donated some iron manufacturing workshops in Skyllberg and elsewhere to Riseberga Abbey. Expropriated during the Reformation, the works have subsequently been owned by the Fineman, De Geer, Burenstam and Svensson families.Marinelli Bell Foundry (1080)
Taken over by the Marinelli family in the 14th century, the Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli is one of the world's oldest family-run businesses. It produces about 50 bells a year. Unsurprisingly, 90 percent of its orders are for the Catholic church. Bells produced by the company hang in the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the UN building in New York.
- Five more have a history with postal services and other telecommunications.
Albania: ALBtelecom (1912)
Founded at Albania's independence, ALBtelecom is the country's largest fixed-line telephone operator. It is also licensed to provide mobile telephony and internet. It is majority-owned by CETEL of Turkey. The Albanian state retains a minority stake.
Montenegro: Posta Crne Gore (1841)
Montenegro has been independent since 2006, but its national postal service is much older.
Iceland: Íslandspóstur (1776)
Established by Christian VII of Denmark, which then also ruled over Iceland. Today, Íslandspóstur is one of the country's largest companies, with 1,200 employees.
Norway: Posten Norge (1647)
Founded as a private company called Postvesenet, it later received the blessing of Christian IV, king of Denmark (and also Norway at that time). The state took over in 1719. In 1996, it was renamed Posten Norge.
Portugal: CTT-Correios de Portugal (1511)
Portugal's king Manuel I created the Correio Público, which in 1911 became Correios, Telégraphos e Telefones (CTT), making the current name – CTT-Correios de Portugal – somewhat redundant.
- Three oldest companies come from the food industry.
Kosovo's Meridian Corporation is one of the young country's main food and beverage distributors – address: Bill Clinton Boulevard, Pristina.Spain: Casa de Ganaderos (1218)
Based on a privilege granted by James I of Aragon, nicknamed 'the Conqueror', the Casa de Ganaderos de Zaragoza ('House of the Cattlemen of Zaragoza') defends the rights of Aragonese livestock owners.Denmark: Munke Mølle (1135)
Founded as a water mill on the Odense River, 'Monk's Mill' is still thriving today as a producer of bread and cake mixes. In its long history, it has been the purveyor to the court of no less than 38 kings and two queens of Denmark. These days, the company is owned by Lantmännen, a Swedish agricultural cooperative.
- And finally… two salt mines and a pharmacy.
In previous centuries, the pharmacy's range of healing products included mummy juice, bat power, and swallow's nests. It also sold cognac and gunpowder and was the first in Estonia to sell tobacco. The business was run by the Burchard family for most of its history. From 1582, each generation's first-born son was called Johann and was expected to continue the business. The last of the line, Johann the Tenth, died in 1890.Ukraine: Drohobych Salt Plant (1250)
Drohobych, near Lviv, once was one of the richest and most important cities of the Carpathian region, thanks to the local factories manufacturing salt, supplying customers as far away as Italy.Poland: Bochnia Salt Mine (1248)
Although it ceased mining salt in 1990, the company continues as a tourist attraction. Its various chambers form an underground town, with a functioning chapel and sanatorium. The Wazyn Chamber is large enough to accommodate sports fields, a restaurant, a dormitory and conference facilities.
Africa: a young continent
Africa's oldest companies are all relatively young. Many were established by former colonisers, and the preponderance of postal services, railways and banks reflect their attempts to replicate the infrastructure of modern European statehood in Africa.
Banks are, in fact, the continent's most widespread 'oldest' institutions: in 17 countries across Africa. The oldest one is Standard Chartered Zimbabwe, with roots going back to 1892. The most recent one is Ivory Bank in South Sudan, Africa's youngest nation.
In nine countries across Africa, the postal service is the country's oldest institution. Mauritius Post (1772) is in fact the oldest company in all of Africa. The youngest postal service that is its country's oldest institution is Correios da Guiné-Bissau (1973).
Railways are the oldest companies in six African countries. The oldest company is the Société nationale des Chemins de fer du Congo (1889) in the DR Congo, the youngest Swazi Rail (1963) in eSwatini.
Unlike Europe, there are only a handful of breweries as their country's oldest company. Three, in fact: in Tanzania (1933), Eritrea (1939), and Burundi (1955).
Fairly recent 'oldest' companies are airlines and broadcasters (four each): from Air Madagascar (1962), to Guinea Equatorial Airlines (1996), and Radio Mogadishu (1943) to the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation (1964).
Relatively few 'oldest' companies are involved in agriculture or mining, two mainstays of Africa's economy:
- The Cameroon Development Corporation (1947) grows, processes and markets tropical export crops (including rubber and palm oil).
- Established in 1962 by Harvey Aluminium Company, Halco Mining has a 70-year lease on bauxite mining in a 10,000 km2 area of northwestern Guinea that runs out in 2038.
- The Botswana Meat Commission (1965) was set up by newly-independent Botswana to oversee beef production and export.
- Cotontchad (1971) has the state monopoly on the purchasing and export of cotton, which represents 40 percent of the country's exports.
Three atypical companies complete the African picture:
- Premier FCMG is a South African food manufacturer whose history goes back to 1820, and which produces well-known brands such as Blue Ribbon and Snowflake.
- Hamoud Boualem (1878) is a manufacturer of soft drinks popular in Algeria and with the Algerian diaspora.
- The Communauté Électrique du Bénin (1968) is actually co-owned by the governments of Benin and Togo. It manages the Nangbeto dam in Togo and the import of electricity from Ghana into both countries.
North America: rum, currency, and the lash
Alcohol and money are pretty popular in North America, too. Plantations pop up as a particularly American institution. And Mexico's mint fathered a few surprising currencies.
- Breweries and distilleries are the oldest companies in five countries across Central America and the Caribbean.
Founded by two Jamaican brothers, the company has a catalogue of over 2000 mainly food products, but is best known for its beers, with well-known brands such as Imperial and Bavaria.Nicaragua: Flor de Caña (1890)
Founded by an Italian immigrant who moved to Nicaragua in 1875, the company is still led by one of his descendants. Due to the Nicaraguan Revolution in the 1980s, large quantities of the rum were stored – as a result, in the 1990s Flor de Caña had the largest reserve of aged rum in the world.Haiti : Rhum Barbancourt (1862)
Founded by Dupré Barbancourt, a French immigrant from the Cognac region, the company is still family-run and its rum is one of Haiti's most famous exports.Trinidad & Tobago: House of Angostura (1830)
Founded in Venezuela by the German surgeon-general of Simon Bolivar's army, the company now produces rums and bitters that are some of T&T's most famous exports.Barbados: Mount Gay Rum (1703)
The oldest commercial rum distillery in the world, now owned by Cointreau. Named after the manager of the company owned by John Sober (!)
- Five countries across North America have financial as their oldest companies.
Originally established as the St Lucia Cooperative Bank.Panama: National Bank of Panama (1904)
Panama uses the U.S. dollar, so it doesn't have a central bank in the traditional sense. The National Bank of Panama is charged with non-monetary aspects of central banking.
Belize: Belize Bank (1902)
Founded in 1902 by investors from Mobile, Alabama as the Bank of British Honduras, Belize Bank is one of the largest banks in the country today.El Salvador: HSBC El Salvador (1891)
Established in 1891 as Banco Salvadoreño, it was nationalised in 1980, privatised in 1993 and acquired by HSBC in 2006. After HSBC sold its Salvadoran operations to Colombian bank Davivienda, the bank is now called Banco Davivienda El Salvador.Mexico: La Casa de Moneda (1534)
Mexico's mint was established by a decree from the Spanish Crown and is the oldest in the Americas. Its silver peso became the basis for several modern currencies, including the US dollar, the Japanese yen and the Chinese yuan.
- In four countries, the oldest company has to do with living off the land – at least originally.
A family farming business that grew into a multinational agro-industrial corporation.Jamaica: Rose Hall (1770)
A former plantation, now a museum highlighting the estate's slave history, as well as the legend of the White Witch. In 1977, it was acquired by Michele Rollins, Miss District of Columbia 1963 and first runner-up for Miss USA 1963.
Canada: Hudson's Bay Company (1670)
Starting out as a fur trading business (and for about two centuries the de facto government of large parts of British North America), Hudson's Bay Company now runs retail stores in Canada and the US, including Saks Fifth Avenue.United States: Shirley Plantation (1638)
The oldest surviving company in the United States started out as a slave-holding tobacco plantation. The family that ran the Shirley Plantation produced Robert E. Lee, the Confederate general, and still owns and lives on the premises.
The island nation of Dominica's national newspaper, The Chronicle (est. 1909) is also its oldest company. And finally for North America, two countries have transport companies as their oldest firms: Honduras (National Railroad of Honduras, 1870) and Cuba (Cubana de Aviacion, 1929).
South America: weapons factory to coffee shop
Five South American countries have banks and mints as oldest companies. The oldest, the Casa Nacional de Moneda of Peru, was founded in Lima just 30 years after the city's own founding by the conquistador Pizarro.
Guyana's oldest company started as rum business, which expanded into a chain of liquor stores and then added a cocoa and chocolate factory and shipping agency. It got its name from the Demerara Ice House it acquired in 1896, which contained bars, a hotel and a soft drink plant.
Venezuela's oldest company is a cocoa plantation, Chile's an arms manufacturer (FAMAE stands for Fabricas y Maestranzas del Ejercito, or Factories and Workshops of the Army).
You can go get a coffee at Uruguay's oldest company: the Café Brasilero, frequented by writers and intellectuals. It even has a coffee named after Eduardo Galeano, best remembered for Open Veins of Latin America (1971).
Oceania: ex-con becomes postmaster
Scant information about companies in Oceania – so until further notice, Australia Post may claim the continental title of oldest company.
Vanuatu: European Trust Company (1991)
The island nation's oldest and highest capitalised trust company, providing incorporation and management services, as well as post-incorporation financial services.
New Zealand: Bank of New Zealand (1861)
Its first office opened in Auckland in October 1861, its second the following December in Dunedin. A bit more than a century and a half later, it is one of the four major banks of New Zealand (although in 1992 it was purchased by the National Bank of Australia).
Australia: Australia Post (1809)
Regular postal services in Australia started with the appointment in 1809 of Isaac Nichols, an ex-convict, as Postmaster of New South Wales. His main job was to take charge incoming mail. To avoid chaos on board ships arriving at Sydney, he took letters and parcels to his home in George Street and produce a list of recipients which he would post outside his house and advertise in the Sydney Gazette.
Asia: home of the conglomerate
A scattered field across Asia – no wonder, it is the world's largest, most populous and (arguably) most varied continent. There does seem to be a typically Asian speciality, when it comes to corporate longevity: the conglomerate – especially popular in Arabia and the Indian subcontinent.
- In nine Asian countries, the oldest company is a conglomerate, active across various economic sectors.
Bhutan: Tashi Group (1959)
Tashi is actually a conglomerate whose subsidiaries include Tashi Air, T-Bank, Druk School, a chemical plant and a softdrinks bottling plant.
Qatar: Salam International Investment Limited (1952)
Headquartered in Doha, this publicly listed company is involved in construction and development, technology and communications, luxury and consumer products, investment and real estate, and energy production.
Kuwait: M.H. Alshaya (1890)
Founded as a shipping company between Kuwait and British India, the group today is a multinational franchise operator of around 90 brands (e.g. Topshop in Turkey, H&M in the Middle East, the Cheesecake Factory in the UAE), with additional interests in real estate, construction, hotels, automotive and trading.
Thailand: B. Grimm (1878)
Founded as a chemist by a German-Austrian duo, B. Grimm now is a conglomerate with interests in healthcare, construction, real estate, e-commerce and transport, among other sectors. Power generation currently accounts for 80 percent of the revenue of the group, which operates more than 20 power plants in Thailand, four in Laos and one in Vietnam.
Saudi Arabia: House of Alireza (1845)
Founded in 1845 as a food importer from India, the House of Alireza specialised as shipping agents and diversified to include real estate, jewelery, construction, travel agency, fuel manufacture, and engineering.
Pakistan: House of Habib (1841)
A conglomerate that is involved in banking, schools, the automotive and building industries, and more.
Sri Lanka: George Steuart Group (1835)
Originally involved in coffee and tea brokerage, the Group has now diversified into travel, leisure, health, telecoms, shipping, insurance, education, and recruitment.
Bangladesh: M.M. Ispahani (1820)
Owners of Bangladesh's largest tea company, the group also owns other major food brands, and has interests in shipping, real estate, textiles, and hotels.
India: Wadia Group (1736)
Starting as shipbuilders for the British East India Company, the business has diversified into a conglomerate now including fashion magazines, airlines, engineering, and even a cricket team.
Banks are the oldest companies in Cambodia (1954), Nepal (1937), Jordan (1930), Georgia (1903), Taiwan (1897) and Lebanon (1830).
- Four oldest companies are involved with communication, three with transportation:
Yemenia Airways (1962)
Myanmar National Airlines (1948)
Mongolian National Broadcaster (1931)
KT Corporation, formerly Korea Telecom (1885)
Vietnam Railways (1881)
Singapore Post (1819)
Pos Malaysia (1800)
- Two eateries are the oldest company in their countries, on either side of the continent (plus one coffee shop to stay with the f&b theme):
Israel: Café Abu Salem (1914)
Located in a 250-year-old building in the old market of Nazareth, Café Abu Salem has been continuously operating since 1914. It is currently run by the third generation of the Abu Salem family.
Syria: Bakdash (1885)
A landmark ice cream parlour in the souq of Damascus, famous for a frozen dairy dessert called booza.
China: Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House (1153)
A historic restaurant in Kaifeng, said to be established during the Jin dynasty.
Just one alcohol-producing company: Destileria Limtuaco (1853) in the Philippines, established by Lim Tua Co, a Chinese immigrant, who started distilling Vino de Chino, a bittersweet medicinal wine according to an old family recipe.
- Unsurprisingly, oil and coal extraction are a major sector across the world's largest continent. Some of the oldest companies are significantly older than the countries they operate in.
Specialised in equipment and services to do with oil, gas and petrochemical sectors.Oman: Petroleum Development Oman (1937)
The leading exploration and production company in the Sultanate of Oman, it delivers the majority of the country's crude oil production and natural gas supply.Iraq: North Oil Company (1928)
Headquartered in Kirkuk (northern Iraq), its boundaries extend from the country's northern borders to 32.5 °N, just south of Baghdad. It is one of the 16 companies that comprise the Iraqi Ministry of Oil.Kazakhstan: Bogatyr Coal (1913)
The largest coal mining company in Kazakhstan, producing 42 million tonnes of coal in 2018, about 40 percent of the country's total for that year. Originally founded with capital from British and American investors (including Herbert Hoover), the mine was nationalised by the Soviets in 1918 and re-privatised by the Kazakhs in the 1990s. It operates the Bogatyr Mine, whose output of 56.8 million tonnes of coal in 1985 got it into the Guinness Book of Records as the world's largest coal mine. The company's reserves could keep it in business for another 100 years.
- Manufacturing is key to the oldest companies of three countries:
Founded by the Soviets and moved from Russia to Uzbekistan in 1941 to stay clear of the invading Nazis, the aircraft manufacturer is currently known as the Tashkent Mechanical Plant.Indonesia: Pindad (1808)
Manufacturer of guns, rifles and armored vehicles. Founded by the governor-general of the then Dutch East Indies.Russia: Petrodvorets Watch Factory (1721)
Founded by Peter the Great as a workshop for luxury objects in carved stone, in Soviet times it produced the Lenin Mausoleum and the Kremlin stars. The factory has been producing watches since 1945 – including the first watch to have been in space.The rest? A mixed bag. The oldest company of Laos produces electricity, in Brunei it's a department store, in Afghanistan a cotton company and in Bahrain a specialist in food logistics and retail. The oldest company of Azerbaijan, though landlocked, is the Azerbaijan Caspian Shipping Company (a.k.a. Caspar), which sails the world's largest inland lake.
Last, and oldest: Japan's Kongo Gumi. The Japanese construction firm traces its origins to 578 AD, when one of the skilled workers Prince Shōtoku invited from Korea to build a Buddhist temple decided to start his own business. Kongo Gumi helped build Osaka Castle and many other famous buildings. A 17th-century scroll tracing the company's origins reaches back 40 generations, and is three metres long. The company went into liquidation in 2006, but was purchased by Takamatsu Construction – so it continues, still specialised in building Buddhist temples.
Strange Maps #1042
Got a strange map? Let me know at email@example.com.
(1) "Lalun is a member of the most ancient profession in the world. Lilith was her very-great-grandmamma, and that was before the days of Eve as everyone knows. In the West, people say rude things about Lalun's profession, and write lectures about it, and distribute the lectures to young persons in order that Morality may be preserved. In the East where the profession is hereditary, descending from mother to daughter, nobody writes lectures or takes any notice; and that is a distinct proof of the inability of the East to manage its own affairs." (Rudyard Kipling: On the City Wall, 1889)
There was an explosion in Beirut. It was big. How big? Marco Hernandez and Simon Scarr for Reuters provide a sense of scale:
George William Herbert, an adjunct professor at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies Center for Nonproliferation Studies and a missile and effects consultant, used two methods to estimate the yield of the explosion. One used visual evidence of the blast itself along with damage assessments. The other calculation was based on the amount of ammonium nitrate reportedly at the source of the explosion.
Both techniques estimate the yield as a few hundred tons of TNT equivalent, with the overlap being 200 to 300, Herbert told Reuters.
It starts with a Hellfire Missle, which is 0.01 tons. Then it just keeps going.
stoxart is a project by Gladys where she turns stock market charts to landscape illustrations. The peaks become mountains, the dips become a space for the moon and the stars. The above is an illustration for Purple, which specializes in mattresses, and its base chart which forms the landscape.
Here’s another for Ford, with an apt illustration of a Ford truck riding the terrain:
Grab a print here (or request a custom one).
It reminds me of Michael Najjar’s project High Altitude from 2010, but instead, he used photoshopped mountains to show stock prices (which I’m surprised I never posted on FD).
I thought March was only 31 days, but the system seems stuck. Did anyone try turning it off and on again. Read More
This is very pretty, and *very* 2020
The seamless and transparent characteristics of glass make it one of the materials in favour for minimalist designs in both architectural projects and home furnishes. Focusing on industrial design, glass has been utilised in their designated purposes, be it a vase, a bottle or a lamp with different forms. While this aspect of functional design has helped streamlining many extraneous decorative elements, it also hinders with creations that entice new ways to look and to use. With projects like Bubble from Yuhsien Design Studio, it makes one think about the fine line between experimentations and (un)necessities in today’s oversaturated market.
Yuhsien Lin founded his namesake design studio in 2017 after graduating from Domus Academy with a degree in Product Design and working for a furniture design company in Milano. With a new playground, the designer envisioned many possibilities in multiple scales—from furnitures and homewares to smaller objects that question human interactions. Bubble, completed in 2019 as a part of Paris Design Week, differs from the rest of Lin’s diverse portfolio due to its nature: being an additional widget to an already existing product. Inspired from the ephemerality of bubbles and their ever-changing shapes, Lin imagined a series of fragile-looking vessels that serve as protective layers for equally fragile objects inside. The result is a collection of flower covers made of glass with organic forms, mouth-blown and hand-cut by glass craftsmen in Taiwan, China.
Bubble was specifically designed to fit a small vase that holds a modest stem of flowers. Its configuration reminds one of Ikebana—the Japanese art and philosophy of flower arrangement, but with an additional element. This new inclusion makes one think carefully on the balance between the old and new as well as inside and outside, delivering a new interaction of not only the hands but also the mind. When put together, the composition gives an image of preservation an artefact. The presentation increases the value for the inner content, whereas it is usually exposed and overlooked. The pristine glass dome is voluminous enough to maintain the humidity level required to sustain plants while constructing a swaying visual like flowing bubbles being carried across the air.
While it is important to polish existed products to create a more refined experience, it is as important to build new experience for the users in order to push new boundaries in the creative industry, which in my opinion, is undergoing a halting moment. Whimsical designs like Bubble will not solve existed problems with human-to-product interactions, but it and projects alike will give fresh air and new perspectives to the demanding market of industrial designs.
If you're hiking in the woods and you come across a bear, what do you do? You might be tempted to panic and run, pushing your slower friends behind you as an offering to the giant omnivore, but this is not the right course of action. In fact, the bear experts at the National Park Service (NPS) have created a hilarious PSA to make sure you know that this is wrong. The vintage-style NPS poster clearly reads: “Friends don't use friends as bear bait.” It's a clear-cut reminder to hikers to “stay calm and remember that most bears do not want to attack you; they usually just want to be left alone. Don’t we all?”
Bears can be shy just like humans. However, they sometimes approach humans out of curiosity. It is important to stay calm. The NPS advises people to appear as (calmly) “human” as possible by talking. “Move away slowly and sideways” from a stationary bear. Running and tree climbing are both dangerous as bears can pursue much faster than a human can escape. As running is a bad idea, it is not necessary to sacrifice the slowest sprinter in your friend group. Everyone should stay calm and move slowly. Special caution should be taken around mother bears with cubs as they are very protective of their offspring.
If a bear attacks, the appropriate response depends on the type of bear. For brown bears and grizzlies, a hiker should lie face down with hands folded over the back of the neck. Spreading your legs can also help prevent the bear from flipping you over to get at the soft stomach area. If the bear continues its attack (and seems like it wants to eat you), fighting back is necessary.
Faced with an aggressive black bear, the best tactic is to first try to reach a car or building. If the bear attacks, fight back and target the bear's face. While this all may sound scary, the good news is bears very rarely “hunt” humans. Their aggression is usually a reaction to feeling threatened. Keeping a safe distance from bears should always be the first step in practicing bear safety. Remind yourself that it's a bear's world, we all just hike in it.
For more safety information regarding bears in National Parks, see the National Park Service website. For more “beary” good content, follow the National Park Service on Instagram and Facebook, where the NPS is known for using sassy puns and witty commentary to promote wilderness safety and preservation. In particular, be sure not to miss their annual fall bracket of grizzly bears packing on the pounds for winter hibernation!
Bears usually keep to themselves in the wild, but they can be curious about humans.
Here's one curious bear hovering around a group. Luckily, the humans knew to stay still.
Never try to escape a bear by climbing a tree. They are expert climbers.
Another NPS bear safety tip: give extra space to any mothers with their cubs!
Follow the National Park Service for more bear safety tips and to watch bears put on weight for the winter.