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26 Mar 18:22

Gotcha! Coffee Tryin to steal my toast!😡 Thank you all for...

Gotcha! Coffee Tryin to steal my toast!😡

Thank you all for watching and sharing aug(de)mented Reality 3!!!🍻

Hello LA👋 (at Franks Coffee Shop)

18 Mar 23:59

Does Cadbury chocolate taste different in different countries?

Fans of Cadbury Dairy Milk in the US say it tastes different when it's made in Britain and some Australians say the same. Hershey's milk chocolate is different again. What's the explanation?
24 Mar 06:11

Pixar Releases Free Version of RenderMan

by Soulskill
jones_supa writes: A year ago, animation studio Pixar promised its RenderMan animation and rendering suite would eventually become free for non-commercial use. This was originally scheduled to happen in the SIGGRAPH 2014 computer graphics conference, but things got delayed. Nevertheless, today Pixar is releasing the free version into the wild. Free, non-commercial RenderMan can be used for research, education, evaluation, plug-in development, and any personal projects that do not generate commercial profits. This version is fully featured, without a watermark or any kind of artificial limits. Featuring Pixar's new RIS technology, RenderMan delivers extremely fast global illumination and interactive shading and lighting for artists. The software is available for Mac, Linux, and Windows. In conjunction with the release, Pixar has also launched a new RenderMan Community site where users can exchange knowledge and resources, showcase their own work, share assets such as shaders and scripts, and learn about RenderMan from tutorials.

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24 Mar 19:18

Energy Company Trials Computer Servers To Heat Homes

by Soulskill
New submitter MarcAuslander sends this Associated Press report: Eneco, a Dutch-based energy company with more than 2 million customers, said Tuesday it is installing 'e-Radiators' — computer servers that generate heat while crunching numbers — in five homes across the Netherlands in a trial to see if their warmth could be a commercially viable alternative for traditional radiators. The technology is the brainchild of the Dutch startup company Nerdalize, whose founders claim to have developed the idea after huddling near a laptop to keep warm after their home's thermostat broke and jokingly suggesting buying 100 laptops. Nerdalize says its e-Radiators offer companies or research institutes a cheaper alternative to housing servers in data centers. And because Nerdalize foots the power bill for the radiators, Eneco customers get the warmth they generate for free. The companies said the environment wins, too, because energy is effectively used twice in the new system - to power the servers and to heat rooms.

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23 Mar 17:30

What's the Difference Between Pudding and Mousse? — Word of Mouth

by Kelli Dunn
Pin it button big

When I think of smooth and creamy desserts, the first two things that come to mind are pudding and mousse. While they share similar characteristics, these creamy, no-bake desserts have a few differences. Do you know what sets pudding and mousse apart?


23 Mar 19:10

ghosting it

by Aaron Seigo (aseigo)

After 1723 posts and several years of use, I've switched my blog from the proprietary, Google-owned-and-hosted Blogger to a self-hosted instance of the free software Ghost blogging application. If you are reading this in one of the blog agregators I'm carried on, you may have seen some old postings showing up as a result; apologies if this happens.

I've been watching the Ghost project for a while waiting for it to reach the point I could reasonably use it for my needs. It got there recently and I had the opportunity to move to a new server recently so took the plunge.

Here's what I really like about it, and why I went with it:

  • It is free software. Obviously this is #1 in the list
  • It is actively and openly developed, moving at a good clip
  • I was able to import my Blogger blogs into it quite easily
  • It is focused on minimalism
  • It runs as a separate application

While the first three may be obvious in terms why they are important, I'd like to take a moment to talk about the last two.

It may sound like stating the obvious, but: I want a blogging system for my blog. Not a web site builder. Not a content management system. A blog application. As a counterexample, Wordpress has long exited the land of simple blogging system and become a website building suite. There is nothing wrong with that, but it means it diverges from my desire for a clean, minimal and elegant system for blogging. I've run a few Wordpress sites over the last few years, so I'm not just speaking hypothetically but from first-hand experience.

With Ghot, you write your blogs in a very plain and simple full-screen, two-pane user interface using markdown. No word-processor-wannabe toolbars, switching between keyboard and mouse, lots of menus everywhere. Just a text editor, a live preview next to it and all the editing and formating you could want in a blog. Tags live in a bar below, configuration in a slide-in drawer on the right, and a simple button to save and publish.

Yet in this simple system it still manages to have multiple author support, tag and author specific RSS feeds, static pages, theming ...

Since it runs as its own process, I can have systemd manage it as a separate service listening on a local socket with haproxy forwarding traffic to it. Upgrading the blog becomes a simple matter of setting up a parallel install, testing it, and when I'm happy with it changing the haproxy routing and restarting haproxy. Zero downtime, even if things go wrong. If a security problem or some other issue arrises, I can shut down just the blog and none of the other things I have running on the server are affected. I can even move it to another machine if desired without interuption.

While setting it up, along with other "must have" tools for me such as Kanboard, it reminded me of some aspects of the Kolab architecture, specficially how it is built around a swarm of services that take care of different aspects of the task of "collaboration suite" in concert with each other.

Finally, I'd like to give a shout-out to the author of the Willsong II theme. I purchased the theme after trying his no-cost Willsong 1 theme; it looks nice and professional, and I both wanted to support his efforts and get some of the nice features of Willsong II. It also happens to use the KDE Oxygen font by default, which I thought was pretty spiffy. Unfortunately I ran into some small problems with the theme after installing it. I wrote the author and he responded almost immediately and quickly identified and fixed a bug in the theme. He even customized it a bit for me, even though I didn't ask for that. So: great customer support, and he's got a few other themes with a shared common core that he's working on. If you're looking for a good Ghost theme I recommend giving his efforts a look.

24 Mar 00:25

Why nine hours' sleep may be bad for you

Why a long night's sleep may be worse for you than a short one
22 Mar 18:00

How to Spot a Mighty Morphin' Tourist Force

18 Mar 04:11

Speaking a Second Language May Change How You See the World

by Soulskill
sciencehabit writes: Where did the thief go? You might get a more accurate answer if you ask the question in German. How did she get away? Now you might want to switch to English. Speakers of the two languages put different emphasis on actions and their consequences, influencing the way they think about the world, according to a new study (abstract). The work also finds that bilinguals may get the best of both worldviews, as their thinking can be more flexible.

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20 Mar 15:00

Really Struggling With Finding the Love Here

17 Mar 20:00

A Visual Guide to Chemistry Glassware

by Compound Interest
Chemistry Laboratory Glassware

Click to enlarge

Glassware in the laboratory comes in a range of different shapes and sizes, and is used for a number of purposes. Don’t know your round-bottomed flask from your Florence flask, or your pipettes from your burettes? This graphic has you covered. Below there’s also a little detail on the usage of each.

Basic Glassware

Basic Apparatus

These items should be familiar to anyone who’s been in a chemistry practical lesson in school. Test tubes are the archetypal image of chemistry, whilst beakers also make frequent appearances in school practicals. Boiling tubes aren’t that different from test tubes in appearance, but are used when heating is required – they tend to be made of thicker glass, and are slightly larger and wider.



Of all the flasks used in chemistry, the most iconic is the conical (Erlenmeyer) flask. Named after the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer, who created the flask in 1860, it’s designed so that its contents can be swirled easily without spilling out. This also makes them useful for boiling liquids, and additionally their necks can support filter funnels.

Volumetric flasks are used primarily in the preparation of standard solutions. To create a solution of a specific concentration, we need to know the volume of the solution; the narrow neck of the volumetric flask will have a thin graduation to show where a specific volume is reached.

Round-bottomed flasks and Florence flasks look very similar, but there is a slight difference between the two. Both have round bottoms, designed to spread out heat evenly when they are heated. They are frequently used by chemists for reactions and in rotary evaporators. Whereas round-bottomed flasks will usually have a ground glass joint on their neck, to allow connection to other apparatus, Florence flasks, supposedly named after Florence in Italy, tend to merely have a lip. They can also come with either a flat bottom so they are free-standing, or a rounded bottom, and have longer necks.

The Kjeldahl flask has an even longer neck, and was developed for use in the Kjeldahl method, which is used to determine the nitrogen content in a substance.

Pear-shaped flasks are usually rather small flasks, used for small-scale distillations. Their shape allows recovery of more material than the round-bottomed flasks.

The rather odd-looking retort flasks are used in distillations, though their use was primarily before the advent of condensers. Today, they are very rarely used.

The Schlenk flask and the Straus flask are another two that look fairly similar. Schlenk flasks are commonly used in air-sensitive chemistry, as the side arm allows an inert gas such as nitrogen to be pumped into the vessel. The Straus flask, on the other hand, is used to store dried solvents. The main neck is actually filled in halfway up, and connected to a plugged smaller neck; this main neck can be connected to other apparatus, and allows the solvent to be extracted when the plug is slightly withdrawn or removed entirely.

Finally, the Claisen flask, designed by chemist Ludwig Claisen, is designed for vacuum distillation; distillation under vacuum produces problematic amounts of bubbles when solutions are boiled. Claisen’s flask includes a capillary tube that inserts small bubbles into the liquid, easing the ferocity of boiling, whilst the branched portion of the flask hosts a thermometer. Today, Claisen’s flask is less commonly used.

Funnels, Analysis & Separation


A variety of different apparatus can be used for filtration. The most obvious is the filter funnel, into which filter paper can be placed, and a mixture can then be poured through. The smaller thistle funnel is not used for filtering at all, but to add liquids into apparatus.

The Buchner flask can be used in conjunction with a Buchner funnel in vacuum filtration, and is a much quicker process than the gravity filtration used with normal filter funnels. A vacuum tube can be affixed to the flask’s sidearm, which rapidly sucks through the solvent, leaving any solid in the Buchner funnel.

For separating solutions or liquids of different densities, separating funnels can be used. Liquids of a lower density will float to the top, then the mixtures can be tapped off separately. The similar-looking dropping funnel is used to add liquids or solutions to a reaction.

Another method of separating mixtures of compounds is column chromatography, which can be carried out using a chromatography column. The mixture is passed through a column of silicon dioxide or aluminium oxide, with different components of the mixture taking differing amounts of time to pass through the column.

Finally, the Thiele tube is a piece of apparatus used to determine the melting point of a solid compound. It contains and heats an oil bath, into which a sample can be placed along with a thermometer. Heating then allows melting point to be determined. The design of the flask allows the oil to circulate, ensuring even heating.



A range of different condensers can be utilised in laboratories as important components of distillation apparatus. The most commonly seen condenser in schools is the Liebig condenser, which has an inner tube through which vapour flows, surrounded by a ‘jacket’ through which cool water passes and condenses the vapour. The Graham condenser is similar to this, but has a coiled path for the vapour to flow through and condense. Meanwhile, the Friedrichs condenser inverts the arrangement, having a spiral coil through which the coolant flows, with the vapour surrounding it. Other varieties of condenser are also available, though are not shown here.

Another piece of glassware that falls loosely into this category is the fractionating column. This helps separate a mixture during distillation, as vapours collect and distill on the small glass ‘trays’ ascending the column. Only the most volatile gases will ascend all the way to the top of the column to be distilled off.

Measuring Apparatus


A number of pieces of chemistry glassware are used to accurately measure volumes; the most obvious being the graduated cylinder, or measuring cylinder, which can come in a variety of sizes.

For measuring volumes of solutions more precisely, a volumetric pipette can be used. These come in a variety of sizes, each measuring a fixed volume of solution. Graduated pipettes can also be used, which allow various small volumes to be measured out. For measurement of volumes during titrations (the addition of one solution to another to determine an unknown concentration) burettes are used. These are long, narrow tubes, with incremental volume markings, which allow precise volumes of solutions to be dropped into another solution.

For measuring the volume of gas produced in a reaction, a gas syringe can be used. This piece of apparatus can be attached to the top of a flask via a piece of tubing, and the gas produced pushes the plunger out of the syringe, allowing the gas volume to be measured.

The only piece of glassware we haven’t mentioned is the Soxhlet extractor. This is used to extract chemicals from a solid sample into a liquid. You can see it in action in this video which details the extraction of caffeine from coffee.

This graphic is available to purchase on posters & mugs on the site’s Redbubble page.



The graphic in this article is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Want to share it elsewhere? See the site’s content usage guidelines.

References & Further Reading

12 Mar 20:00

So Close to the Romance You Can Taste It

01 Mar 00:02

Why Iceland banned beer

A century ago, Iceland introduced full prohibition. Within a decade, red wine had been legalised, followed by spirits in the 1930s. But beer remained off-limits until 1989. Why?
03 Mar 00:08

Coffee linked to 'cleaner' arteries

Drinking a few cups of coffee a day may help people avoid clogged arteries - a known risk factor for heart disease - South Korean researchers believe.
03 Mar 09:51

What people see instead of darkness

What do you see when you close your eyes?
12 Mar 15:50

Sir Terry Pratchett Succumbs To "the Embuggerance," Aged 66

by timothy
New submitter sp1nl0ck writes Sir Terry Pratchett, the creator of Discworld, has died aged 66, following a long battle with Alzheimer's Disease. Sir Terry announced that he was suffering from The Embuggerance in an open letter to fans over seven years ago, and recently had to cancel a planned appearance at the International Discworld Convention last summer, and donated over £500K of his own money to research into the condition. He also spoke in favour of a euthanasia tribunal, the members of which would consider the case of each ' ensure they are of sound and informed mind, firm in their purpose, suffering from a life-threatening and incurable disease and not under the influence of a third party'. Sadly, he didn't survive long enough to see such a tribunal — or indeed any kind of assistance for those suffering from an incurable condition who wish to end their own life — come into being. More at the BBC.

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12 Mar 10:00

Entering the BIOS

by sharhalakis

by @just_hank_moody, andreibkn and necessaryaegis

11 Mar 09:45

Why Your Calendar Starts With Sunday

by Melissa -

As with so many things passed down to us from antiquity, religion is the reason the calendar week starts (for many of us) on Sunday.


11 Mar 00:00

Henri Poincare

"Science is facts; just as houses are made of stones, so is science made of facts; but a pile of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science."
05 Mar 18:15



03 Mar 14:54

Khronos Group Announces Vulkan To Compete Against DirectX 12

by timothy
Phopojijo writes The Khronos Group has announced the Vulkan API for compute and graphics. Its goal is to compete against DirectX 12. It has some interesting features, such as queuing to multiple GPUs and an LLVM-based bytecode for its shading language to remove the need for a compiler from the graphics drivers. Also, the API allows graphics card vendors to support Vulkan with drivers back to Windows XP "and beyond."

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06 Mar 00:13

(photo via AlexanderBlum)

(photo via AlexanderBlum)

04 Mar 07:28


Finland-based symphonic metal masters NIGHTWISH will launch the European leg of their "Endless Forms Most Beautiful" in November in Copenhagen, Denmark. Support on the trek will come from AMORPHIS and ARCH ENEMY. The dates are as follows: Nov. 16 – DK - Copenhagen - Falconer Nov. 18 - GER - Hamburg - O2 World Nov. 19 - NL - Amsterdam - Heineken Music Hall Nov. 21 - GER - Oberhausen - König-Pilsener-Arena Nov. 23 - FR - Lyon - Hall Tony Garnier Nov. 25 - FR - Paris - POPB-Bercy Nov. 26 - FR - Toulouse - Le Zénith Nov. 28 - CH - Basel - St. Jakobshalle Nov. 29 - IT - Bologna - Unipol Arena Dec. 01 - GER - Munich - Zenith Dec. 03 - GER - Stuttgart - Schleyerhalle Dec. 04 - GER - Frankfurt - Jahrhunderthalle Dec. 05 - GER - Nürnberg - Arena Dec. 07 - CZ - Prague - Tip Sport Arena Prague Dec. 10 - RO - Bucharest - Romexpo Dec. 14 - GER - Leipzig - Arena Dec. 15 - GER - Berlin Max - Schmeling-Halle Dec. 16 - LUX - Luxembourg - Rockhal Dec. 17 - BE - Antwerp - Lotto Arena Dec. 19 - UK – London - Wembley SSE Arena NIGHTWISH's new album, "Endless Forms Most Beautiful", will be made available on March 27 in Europe and March 31 in the U.S. via Nuclear Blast. The CD marks NIGHTWISH's first studio album with Dutch singer Floor Jansen, who replaced Anette Olzon in 2012. The cover artwork for "Endless Forms Most Beautiful" was created by the band's longtime collaborator Toxic Angel. Famed evolutionary biologist and atheist writer/leader Richard Dawkins appears on the effort as a guest. Longtime NIGHTWISH drummer Jukka Nevalainen sat out the recording sessions for "Endless Forms Most Beautiful" due to health issues; Kai Hahto (WINTERSUN, SWALLOW THE SUN, TREES OF ETERNITY) replaced him in the studio and will join NIGHTWISH on tour in support of the new CD. "Èlan" video:
27 Feb 21:30

Shack Reels: 8-Bit Cuisine bakes us some World of Warcraft-inspired brownies

by Shack Staff

It’s been a few months, but 8-Bit Cuisine is back yet again, and this time, Chef Jen is treating us to a sweet treat that would even make the toughest Orc to say “Yummy!”

In this episode of 8-Bit Cuisine, Jen makes some Dalaran Brownies, which are inspired from the Wrath of the Lich King expansion pack for World of Warcraft.


1 ½ Cups Flour

1 cup Cocoa Powder

1 Tsp Salt

1 Cup Butter

1 ½ Cups Brown Sugar

1 ½ Cups White Sugar

1 Tbsp Vanilla Extract

4 Eggs

1 Cup of Chocolate Chips

YIELD: An entire party or one very hungry Orc

26 Feb 20:07

"That’s enough, tiny kitty."

"That’s enough, tiny kitty."

25 Feb 23:30

This Extra Mattress Rolls Up Into a Chair During the Day

by Andrew Liszewski

Transforming a convertible sofa into a bed can sometimes seem more complex than Optimus Prime changing into a truck. For a more compact emergency bed that's easier to move wherever you need it, check out Campeggi's Girella chair, which is as simple to transform as unrolling a sleeping bag.


25 Feb 03:00


24 Feb 10:00

Project handover

by sharhalakis

by uaiHebert

23 Feb 08:11

by daniel


23 Feb 00:00

Mark Twain

"I have never let my schooling interfere with my education."