Wait, what? No really. Oh, those wacky Victorians. Bless 'em for their love of ephemera and the joy they had in sending cards, but some of their practices are quite perplexing. I enjoyed this article at Hyperallergic on why dead birds on Christmas cards were a thing at one time. Basically, it all boils down to those damn dirty pagans. The article is a good read. Have you started sending out holiday cards yet? What do you think people 200 years from now will find very strange about our greeting cards?
oh man, so tempted to do this now...
So flippin' true... happened today in fact
An interesting problem... on one hand, it has crossed my mind to write to an inmate (I've written to random people across the US before) but there's also the creepy factor...
Here at L.W.A.H.Q. we don't do pen pal matches for currently incarcerated individuals. Kathy and I simply aren't able to do the legal and emotional work required for that service. We've had to add a disclaimer on the pen pal swap and membership pages because transparency and member privacy are paramount in importance to us. Unfortunately, we are not infallible and rely on the honesty of individuals when they sign up for the program. All physical mail from a currently incarcerated person is clearly marked; so we do screen out any requests that we can identify. We thank all of you for your patience and understanding in this matter. This hasn't been an easy decision. Letters are a quite literal life-line for people in prison. Personally, I have had two family members spend time in prison. I'm not special in this regard. After all, America is a prison industrial complex on the largest scale. It's one of the many, many problems we face.
There are numerous organizations out there that are devoted to serving the needs of prisoner correspondents. Two organizations that I think are doing fantastic with pen pals for prisoners are Black & Pink and Solitary Watch. If you have had a prison pal relationship and wish to share your experience or other information in the comments, we welcome you to do so. Thank you for listening.
thegaylinguist: “what is a linguist?” linguists: a person who studies language at a meta level; a...
“what is a linguist?”
linguists: a person who studies language at a meta level; a language scientist
average non-linguist: a walking dictionary, encyclopedia, spelling/grammar-checker, & translator
amazon, google, microsoft: a data scientist specializing in ontology
Lindsey of The Postman's Knock has a fantastic round-up of her Halloween projects from the previous years. There are nine paper and calligraphy ideas for your eerie enjoyment. It's got printables and how-tos. All treats here, folks, no tricks.
P.S. And congratulations to her and her family on their recent special delivery.
Tormenting (I mean helping) cats. Awesome. Clearly I need to make one of these for Duck :)
And so begins the awkward task of trying to sell some of my creatures. I don't need the money, but I think I do need the minor sense of validation of someone else liking one of my dudes.... hoping to get a listing of about 5-10 creatures up before the year is out...
Good evening Sketchy folks! Still working on some details, but our next event will be WEDNESDAY, September 26th, at DNA LOUNGE! Be sure to join us for an amazing night. Specifics to come soon! #keepsfsketchy
trying to ramp up the letter output again...
Inventor, illustrator, and all-around inquisitive person Lea Redmond with Leafcutter Designs, leader of World's Smallest Post is at it again. We are big fans of her small letters and packages here at L.W.A. I think I do a posting on her perfection once a quarter due to the sheer volume of awesome she manages to put out. One of her newest genius moves is called S.A.S.E. Treats! Small, mailable, shareable fun things that encourage interaction and exploration. Send her a S.A.S.E. (that's a Self-Addressed-Stamped-Envelope) and she'll send you a treat. The froggies were but the beginning. She has new surprises in store! Send your S.A.S.E. to: Leafcutter Designs/329 15th Street/Oakland/CA/94612
And if you, like us, are just delighted by all things Leafcutter offers, check out their new Kickstarter for a package full of small adventures. Lively Matters focuses on getting back in touch with the wonder contained within mundane things. "The marvelous world of materials is always calling out to all of our senses." Here, here!
Hmmm... maybe you could comment on her blog, Suko?
I did a lot of online research about the hair loss process, so I would know what to expect. It really helped me to have a plan - I did my wig shopping in advance, knowing that when I was on chemo, I wouldn't have the energy or emotional stability to get through it.
Haircut and Hair Buzz
First, I cut my hair into a cute, short bob - I knew my hair would fall out, but there would be less of it to fall out. 2 weeks after my first treatment, it started falling out in handfuls, so I took the plunge and got it shaved off. I had no idea what to ask for, so, I asked for the shortest setting on the clippers, which is a 1. I didn't want to look like Mr. Clean just yet. :)
It is hard to look into the mirror and see a shaved head, but I was a lot less emotional than I thought I would be. I won't be winning any beauty awards, but it looked a lot less terrible than I thought it would. I kind of felt like Ripley in glasses. And my head was a lot less lumpy and awkward than I had imagined. Ugh, but all those spiky little hairs as they fall out and poke me in the head are a real pain!
My goal was to have at least 1 moderately priced, good-quality wig, and a bunch of other cheap fun wigs for running to the store, going out, etc.
After a lot of research on Youtube, I settled on a cute side parted bob by Estetica called Jamison:
Jamison retails around $216, but many online stores have good sales that could put it in the $150 range. After wearing this wig for several days, I do think it is a nice quality wig that looks very realistic. It is very light and pretty comfortable, even for people with large heads like myself. The permatease in the scalp is pretty scratchy, but the bonus is you get more body in your hair if you want it. You can also manipulate the part a bit and the mesh / lace makes the scalp area look very real. Everyone who has seen this wig says it looks like real hair. I had some quality issues with the wig I received and had to exchange it, you can read more about that farther down.
Color is a challenge - because all you have is this one small photo of someone with a hair color not even remotely like yours. Being Hispanic, there is a real lack of models who look like me, so I really have to use my imagination and go out on a limb when ordering.
The first color I ordered, R4-6, looked like my hair color in the tiny thumbnail:
But when I received the wig and tried it on it just wasn't right - it was way too brown, and kind of a golden brown, that doesn't really show in the thumbnail. Again, I think this reveals a limitation for Hispanic, and Asian wig shoppers - there aren't a lot of colors with the right tone for us.
On my second try, I ordered R2-4, and that was a better match, but still a lot more brown than it appeared in the thumbnail:
But seriously guys, look at those tiny thumbnails - do they not look the same to you?
My best advice is to go into an actual wig store and try on to find the right shade. But in my experience the saleslady refused to give out style numbers and colors, assuming I would order it online. That was really off putting because I would happily order in person, and pay more if I had a good experience with her.
Ordering Wigs Online- Exchanges, Ugh
Exchange policies - do your research! The Jamison wig arrived with damage I could not see, but since it was shipped directly from the wig manufacturer Estetica, I have no way to prove it was damaged by them and not me. When I sent it back to the store they saw the damage and assumed I was responsible. I have been going back and forth with the store for 3 weeks - they are charging me for 2 wigs, even though I only have one. The customer service people have been very unsympathetic, even though I told them I was a first time wig buyer and a cancer patient on chemo with a limited budget.
So my advice is do your research on the store return policies and ask as many questions as possible upfront. I think I could have saved myself a lot of time and money that way. Based on my experience I would not recommend the store I purchased from, I don't even want to name them, but I'll let you know when I have a better experience.
I found a great local wig shop with really affordable prices and the best part was that all the wigs were in the middle of the store and I could just put on a wig cap and try on every single one! I highly recommend visiting a local wig store like this because you really can't tell from a photo if a wig will look good on you or not. It's a great way to find which styles work for you.
My favorite inexpensive wigs so far are Bobbi Boss wigs:
Bobbi Boss Jesse wig - Color 4
Bobbi Boss has full price wigs in the $50-$60 range, but you can usually find them on sale for $25 and less. Their color options are a much better match for me, they do have lighter colors but their strength is dark colors.
I had a great experience ordering from Ebonyline.com. They had a good sale going, and with their $4.99 Flat rate shipping, I ordered my wigs on a Sunday night and had them by Thursday. They also had the lowest prices compared to other stores I saw.
So that's my experience with wigs so far. Do you have any good wig recommendations? Please leave a comment and let me know, or ask me any questions you might have!
now I want to see one of these animated...
for New Scientist magazine
I think this is an amazing post and really describes a lot of things I struggle with in my sketches but so desperately wish I could conquer. It looks so easy...
Some people have asked how I went about drawing the Overwatch cast, so I threw together a list of things I think about when designing characters: shapes, silhouettes, colors, and inspiration.
There are three basic shapes in my toolbox: round, box, and triangle. If I follow my intuition, each shape conveys a personality. For example:
- Round = charismatic, harmless, endearing
- Box = reliable, uniform, traditional
- Triangle = cunning, dynamic, competent (downward pointing more aggressive)
- Shapes can also be combined for more complex characters
Block in the character. If I can still recognize who it is, then it has a strong, readable silhouette.
Sometimes less is more. Limit the palette for unity and impact. When working with three colors, keep the 60-30-10 rule in mind. Pick one color to make up about 60% of the character, a second color to make up about 30%, and the last color is about 10%.
When working with just two colors, use the 70-30 rule. One color is about 70%, the second is about 30%.
Designs come to mind easier when I’m listening to music, or when I have a mental image of something in mind. For example, I was listening to Klezmer music when drawing Reaper, and I was thinking of a chicken when I was drawing Lucio. It can take a while to warm up, so a good source of inspiration is important to stay motivated.
Beyond that, it’s up to you!
I appreciate the idea of using the existing edges as much as possible...
which is also pretty much how to make a lightwieght jacket from a nice shawl.
This post brought to you courtesy of the fact that M and S were having a sale on beach towels.
and I thought Gareth might like one with cacti.
You will need to measure how long you want the garment, and the circumference of your upper arm, as well as judging how long you want the sleeves to be.
The aim of this is to not hem anything, instead you use the selvedges and already finished edges of your towels.
Therefore the first step is to cut a strip about four inches wide along the long edge of your first towel – this will become your collar strip.
Next measure how long you want the garment to be and cut a piece from the middle. Remember to keep the bottom of the towel as your finished hem. This will be the back of the garment.
Now you’re going to concentrate on the smaller square. The larger square is about 20 inches across and will be one of the sleeves, again with the hem as cuff (unfortunately due to the pattern on this towel the sleeve cacti will be upside down). For a dressing gown you don’t normally want full length sleeves, it’s best if they come to mid-forearm.
The smaller square will be one of the pockets, and the scraps will be saved in case we need them later.
So that’s the layout of the first towel – two collar strips, the back panel, one sleeve, one pocket, and some emergency bits.
Cut across the second towel to make a square the same lenght as the back you already cut from towel one.
Fold this in half lengthways and cut up the middle. This will make the front panels.
Whilst the two pieces are folded cut a small triangle from the top inner edge to allow for your neck. I’ve cut a bit about four inches by ten – this is on the conservative side, because it’s best to cut smaller than you need and adjust later if needs be.
Then from the remaining part of towel two cut another sleeve and pocket to match the first, and cut the remainder into four inch strips. Remember to use the hems.
This is the layout of towel two.
If you cut the hems off the two small triangles from the neck you can save them to use as belt loops.
First step is to place the pockets. You’ll need to measure roughly where the ends of your arms are, then place the pocket in the middle of the width of fabric. The hem of the towel becomes the top edge of the pocket.
This is the only bit you sew with a striaght stitch. For the rest of the garmet you need to use either a zigzag or that stitch that looks like two rows of straight with a zigzag in between (I have no idea what it’s called but I know where it is on my bernina)
Next sew the shoulder seams and take a good look at the remaining neck gap. Mine ended up being only three inches, which was far too narrow, so I trimmed it out to about six before proceeding.
Next sew on the collar.
Start at the bottom hem. Place the strip so the wrong side of the strip fabric is on the right side of the body fabric – you want it to flip over and make a collar so it needs to be wrong side/right side. THe hem of your strip should be the outer edge.
Note that I’m sewing a flat overlap seam rather than a folded one.
Sew to the centre back of the neck, then stop.
Trim any excess overlap.
If you’ve done it right it should fold over to show the right side with a built in hem.
Repeat with the second strip so they meet at the back of the neck.
Overlap and sew.
Nice collar. Or nice enough for a dressing gown, at least. I mean, I wouldn’t wear it to a formal dinner or anything, but it’s nice enough to slob around watching what passes for the morning news and drinking tea.
Someone really ought to tell Naga Munchetty that a few men who didn’t get the right GCSEs to work at Sainbury’s kicking a ball around isn’t actaully news, and that they have special channels for that sort of thing these days.
Sew on both sleeves. Again remember to make the hem of the towel the hem of the sleeve, so you’re sewing cut edges at this point.
Sew the sides and sleeves together. (remember to sew your belt loops in about four to six inches below the armpit.)
Don’t sew the whole thing in one go though. Start by sewing from the bottom hem up to about an inch from the armpit, then switch round and sew the sleeves from the hem to about an inch from the armpit – this will ensure that all the integral hems line up, and if there are minor discrepancies you can sort of fudge the resulting armpit hole and make it fit.
You have two choices for the belt. You can either buy a piece of satin upholstery rope and make an old fashioned tassel ended belt, or you can sew the leftover bits into a strip.
When I was a kid I always found the satin rope option on bought dressing gowns quite annoying, so I go for the self made strip option. It’s best to make a three fold with a seam down the centre, rather than an edge fold because an edge fold means you end up trying to sew through four thicknesses of towelling (the centre fold is only three) which is just that little bit too much for most domestic machines to handle – trust me I’ve tried it.
Towelling is extraordinarily messy stuff, so this really is one project where you want to remember to clean your machine after each garment.
Cacti for Gareth, which has been put away for Christmas
And tasteful Orange and pink with heffalumps for me
that pop song is amazing (and good)
One major part of introducing students to sociology is getting to the “this is water” lesson: the idea that our default experiences of social life are often strange and worthy of examining. This can be challenging, because the default is often boring or difficult to grasp, but asking the right questions is a good start (with some potentially hilarious results).
Take this one: what does English sound like to a non-native speaker? For students who grew up speaking it, this is almost like one of those Zen koans that you can’t quite wrap your head around. If you intuitively know what the language means, it is difficult to separate that meaning from the raw sounds.
That’s why I love this video from Italian pop singer Adriano Celentano. The whole thing is gibberish written to imitate how English slang sounds to people who don’t speak it.
Another example to get class going with a laugh is the 1990s video game Fighting Baseball for the SNES. Released in Japan, the game didn’t have the licensing to use real players’ names, so they used names that sounded close enough. A list of some of the names still bounces around the internet:
The popular idea of the Uncanny Valley in horror and science fiction works really well for languages, too. The funny (and sometimes unsettling) feelings we get when we watch imitations of our default assumptions fall short is a great way to get students thinking about how much work goes into our social world in the first place.Evan Stewart is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology at the University of Minnesota. You can follow him on Twitter.
I spent like 15 hours on this.
*impressed slow clap*
This was ridiculously pleasing to read out loud.
This is a legitimately fine poem. I say so with my BA in English and Philosophy and my PhD. It’s DAMN HARD to write something like this. Be impressed, yo.
Transcript of poem in screenshot:
First the cracker batter baker bakes a cracker batter batch
then the cracker batter mixer door will open and unlatch
so the batter mixer nozzle can descend onto the patch
where the cracker batter spreads out for the nozzle to attach.
When the cracker mixer nozzle sprays the cracker batter spray
and the cracker batch emulsion lies a-soaking in its haze
then the cracker batter mixer starts to stir up all the glaze
that the final cracker stacker needs to lubricate the way.
Once the cracker stacker handle stacks the cracker batter squares
then the cracker batter’s hardened into double stacks of pairs.
Now the cracker separator breaks the crackers in the stackers
so the wrappers on the stackers fit the finished stacking crackers.
Then they’re distributed to Wal-Mart.
I forgot about this magnificent poem, and you probably did too. Here it is again.
I highly recommend trying to read it aloud, it feels delightful and is almost impossible.
I have tried (and failed) several times in the recent past to wrap my head around the "mora" idea...
A really interesting article about how babies learn Japanese. Excerpt:
Nissan, Toyota, Honda — three universally recognized car manufacturers, two of which are also common Japanese surnames. If you ask an English speaker to tell you which name is longest, they’ll say Toyota, with its three syllables. A Japanese speaker, on the other hand, will say Nissan. This difference reveals a lot about the underlying rhythms used in human vocal communication, says developmental neurolinguist Reiko Mazuka of the RIKEN Brain Science Institute, and also casts doubt on universal theories of language-learning that are mostly based on studies of English speakers.
So why is Nissan longer to Japanese ears? It’s all based on ‘mora’, a counter of linguistic rhythm that is distinct from stress (like in German or English) or syllable (like in French). Most people are familiar with this pattern of counting from haiku, the five–seven–five pattern that defines the classical Japanese meter. The ‘syllables’ in haiku aren’t really syllables but rather morae. Nissan thus has four morae of equal duration (ニッサン or ni-s-sa-n), rather than just the two syllables picked up by Western ears.
But Japanese babies are not born with an internal mora counter, and this is what got Mazuka so interested in returning to Japan from the United States, where she completed her PhD and still maintains a research professorship at Duke University. “The Japanese language doesn’t quite fit with the dominant theories,” she says, “and I used to think this was because Japanese was exceptional. Now my feeling is, Japanese is not an exception. Rather, what works for English is not universal” in terms of mechanisms for language learning.
Mazuka’s lab on the outskirts of Tokyo studies upwards of 1,000 babies a year, and she explains that infants start to recognize mora as a phonemic unit at about 10 months of age. “Infants have to learn how duration and pitch are used as cues in language,” she says. And Japanese is one of the few languages in the world that contains duration-based phonemic contrasts — what English speakers think of as short and long vowels, for example — that can distinguish one mora from two morae. Dominant ideas in the field suggest all babies, from birth, use rhythm as a ‘bootstrap’ to start segmenting sounds into speech, first identifying whether they are dealing with a syllable- or stress-based language. “The theory says that rhythm comes first, but Japanese babies can’t count morae until they’re almost a year old,” Mazuka exclaims. “You can’t conclude that rhythm is the driving force of early phonological development, when evidence from Japanese babies shows it’s not an a prioriunit.”
thequantumwritings: Sometimes i think about the idea of Common as a language in fantasy settings. On...
Sometimes i think about the idea of Common as a language in fantasy settings.
On the one hand, it’s a nice convenient narrative device that doesn’t necessarily need to be explored, but if you do take a moment to think about where it came from or what it might look like, you find that there’s really only 2 possible origins.
In settings where humans speak common and only Common, while every other race has its own language and also speaks Common, the implication is rather clear: at some point in the setting’s history, humans did the imperialism thing, and while their empire has crumbled, the only reason everyone speaks Human is that way back when, they had to, and since everyone speaks it, the humans rebranded their language as Common and painted themselves as the default race in a not-so-subtle parallel of real-world whiteness.
In settings where Human and Common are separate languages, though (and I haven’t seen nearly as many of these as I’d like), Common would have developed communally between at least three or four races who needed to communicate all together. With only two races trying to communicate, no one would need to learn more than one new language, but if, say, a marketplace became a trading hub for humans, dwarves, orcs, and elves, then either any given trader would need to learn three new languages to be sure that they could talk to every potential customer, OR a pidgin could spring up around that marketplace that eventually spreads as the traders travel the world.
Drop your concept of Common meaning “english, but in middle earth” for a moment and imagine a language where everyone uses human words for produce, farming, and carpentry; dwarven words for gemstones, masonry, and construction; elven words for textiles, magic, and music; and orcish words for smithing weaponry/armor, and livestock. Imagine that it’s all tied together with a mishmash of grammatical structures where some words conjugate and others don’t, some adjectives go before the noun and some go after, and plurals and tenses vary wildly based on what you’re talking about.
Now try to tell me that’s not infinitely more interesting.
What 'translation problems' aren't: here's an amazing German word that describes the smell of spring !! No other language has a direct translation of this word !!
What 'translation problems' are: there are thirty different words to denote 'levels of intimacy' of a given relationship in terms of friendship in Polish, and the strongest one seems to translate to 'friend', which makes social interactions with English-speakers very confusing when they start calling you a friend 30 minutes in, and you feel like they'll get lowkey offended if you call them anything else back, and you feel either fake if you refer to them internally as 'friend', or extremely cold if you refer to them internally as 'acquaintance'
I’ve written about the problem of emoji directions before, but this is an example of a communication-fail that happened in my life because of the problem of emoji showing up as different directions on different platforms.
After messaging with someone about their terrible day at work, I suggested they get away from the (metaphorical) flaming wreck, and then sent this emoji string from Twitter (on my admittedly rather old phone) to illustrate the point:
I was met with a string of question marks, and a screen cap of what the other person saw on their newer Google Emoji enabled phone:
NO!!! Don’t run into the fire!!! Save yourself!
Twitter Emoji on my computer showed the same (but a much snazzier door):
My phone is still using a much older emoji set, but one that (at least for fires that start on one’s left) shows the correct safety procedure.
As Emojipedia shows, all major emoji sets have now reconcilled the running person to be left facing. Other emoji have also had inconsistent directions on major platforms before (and some still do), including the Hocho knife, thinking face, lizard, airplane, rocket, water polo player, handball player, and trumpet.
Of course, all of my angst about emoji directions may soon be moot - Unicode are in the process of considering a proposal to be able to flip emoji, using the same technical process that allows for different skin tones.
Letterlocking is a technique of folding a letter so that it becomes its own envelope. The letter is often secured with a wax seal and is designed so that it cannot be easily opened and resealed. To read the letter, seals must be broken and/or some paper must be torn. This provided security to correspondence long before the advent of micro-printing and obscuring envelopes.
The expert of letterlocking is Jana Dambrogio, a conservator at MIT Libraries. She's found examples from Queen Elizabeth I, Machiavelli, Galileo, Marie Antoinette and others. There are numerous ways to lock a letter, and many can be found at the well-researched and resource rich Letterlocking.org. Additionally, there's a YouTube channel featuring different styles, including ones from the Harry Potter movies.
Letters locked this way always remind me of notes that we used to pass in school, with their elaborate ways of folding to keep our secrets safe. I've gotten a few letters mailed to me like this and it always hurts me a little to rip into them. I was reminded of this art by pen pal and book artist Sara, whose photo illustrates this post and who sent me a great recreation of a Butterfly Lock. Don't they look lovely? Have you sent or received a locked letter? Do you have a favorite technique?
always been fascinated by this... I worked with Ian a bit at Rdio. I met one of his "hands" at the time and she was super cool too. Gives me hope when I fret about future injuries I might sustain in life...
I've been working with apprentices since the early 90s, but I haven't really written about it here; I suppose it's about time!
Every year or so my apprentice graduates and I hire a new one. I recently went through that hiring process, and I'm always a little overwhelmed by all of the interested (and interesting!) people. It's distressing that I can only hire one, especially since I seem to be one of the few people offering this sort of thing in the web development industry.
Anyway, a little history… I started programming when I was 9 and went pro when I was 17. I became obsessed and didn't take care of my body, and by the time I was 20 I had developed a chronic wrist injury that I still have decades later. Maybe I should have walked away from computers, but by then I was hooked! That was a dark time, but eventually I struck upon a solution… I could dictate my code to someone else who could be my hands. Turns out this can be very effective and rewarding (even if it does require some patience).
I use the term apprentice because they're never just a typist… It's impossible to be the conduit for all of that code without picking up a lot of things along the way. I liken it to learning a foreign language by going to a foreign country and hearing people speak it all day long. As we work, I try to explain things along the way, and encourage my apprentice to ask questions. At the beginning I may have to spell everything out, but over time the apprentice picks up the patterns and I can speak at a more high level. The more they understand of what we're doing, the more powerful a team we become!
When I started doing this in the early 90s, pair programming wasn't a widely known practice, but nowadays it's much more common. What I'm doing with my apprentice is much like pair programming, except that the experience gap between my apprentice and me is wider than for most pairs (sometimes my apprentices start out knowing nothing about programming, though that's rarer these days with all the online code learning resources), and we never swap who's typing. Many of the benefits to pair programming still apply:
- Two pairs of eyes on the code means fewer mistakes
- We are focused on the job all day long; having someone else there makes it harder to procrastinate
- Knowledge exchange; my apprentice is learning from me, and I'm learning from talking things through with them
- We are able to discuss design challenges and alternatives to come up with better solutions
Often people ask me about my "apprenticeship program" and how they can replicate it at their company or in their region. First off: yes, you should! There are tons of promising novice programmers out there who just need a bit of guidance and an opportunity to grow. There seems to be no shortage of software jobs, but it's difficult for someone new to break in. Anyone who can tap into that budding talent gets a competitive advantage. Meanwhile, the apprentices get a head start with invaluable learning by being directly involved with real projects. Better training and knowledge exchange means better developers, which means a better industry. For more thoughts on why (and how), see Software Training Sucks: Why We Need to Roll it Back 1,000 Years from Rob Walling. I've also written about the benefits of apprenticeship culture before.
I think what I've been doing gives pretty good results, but of course it's also tuned to my situation… After all, the driving need here is for me to be able to get my work done. If I didn't need them to type for me, I would want the apprentice to move to greater levels of individual contribution gradually over time. As it is, I do recommend my apprentice use their off time to focus on their own projects and bring them in to discuss with me, to help cement their learning.
Anyway, my recommendations:
- Pick someone who shows promise and passion but doesn't have a lot of experience. Don't just go for college students on break (like many internship programs), or you'll miss out on all the folks coming out of boot camps or who've learned with online resources.
- Get them working on real projects right away (whether this be in a company setting or on open source). Real projects are the only way to turn theory into skill. The sooner they get started, the sooner all of the lessons and exercises they've done will actually make sense. Besides, this way they're being productive from the beginning.
- Start them out pairing with someone who's already established. Make sure the mentor/apprentice relationship is explicit and that both sides understand what's expected. I think it's good for the less experienced programmer to do the typing, because otherwise it's easy for them to zone out while the more experienced programmer whizzes around, but your mileage may vary. It may feel slow at first, but you're sharing valuable information, and things will speed up as your shared experience grows.
- Next step would be to have them make their own pull requests and have the experienced programmer critique them. This exercises different parts of the brain than the pair programming, and helps them move into the driver seat. Actually, I suppose you could do this step live, with the more experienced programmer doing the typing based entirely on dictation from the apprentice, but giving feedback along the way. Either way, you'll already have a rich shared understanding to build on.
- Move them gradually up to more levels of autonomy, until one day they become the mentor for the next apprentice!
What do you think? I'm sure I've just scratched the surface… Hit me up with questions if you've got 'em!
Given names in Korean are almost always two syllables, with the first syllable usually being shared with your siblings and cousins (all the children of the same generation of a family, basically). I just grew up with this and didn’t think it was weird until I had cause to explain it to someone yesterday, at which point I stopped and wondered if I was making all of this up, it seemed so weird, how the heck do they coordinate that? Do the parents of the first kid of the new generation decide, or something? That doesn’t sound right. I looked it up, and it turns out that family lines keep a constant character array in a poem:
The sequence of generation is typically prescribed and kept in record by a generation poem (bāncì lián 班次聯 or pàizì gē 派字歌 in Chinese) specific to each lineage. While it may have a mnemonic function, these poems can vary in length from around a dozen characters to hundreds of characters. Each successive character becomes the generation name for successive generations. After the last character of the poem is reached, the poem is usually recycled though occasionally it may be extended.
Generation poems were usually composed by a committee of family elders whenever a new lineage was established through geographical emigration or social elevation. Thus families sharing a common generation poem are considered to also share a common ancestor and have originated from a common geographical location.
Which is mindblowingly cool, I think.
Our brains are the product of millions of years of evolution. Scientists would very much like to know how some of the most ancient brains functioned and evolved over time, but that’s obviously not possible, owing to the complete lack of primordial brains to work with. As a good consolation prize, however, scientists can work with crocodiles—an animal that originated more than 200 million years ago, barely changing over the eons. Accordingly, scientists can study crocodiles to understand at which point certain brain structures and behaviors first emerged.
The point of the new study was to determine how the crocodilian brain might respond to complex sounds, and to see how the resulting brain patterns might compare to those observed in mammals and birds. The scientists were hoping to identify precursor brain structures and functions that allow for the processing of complex sights and sounds.
To observe how complex visual and auditory stimulation triggers activity in the reptilian brain, a team led by Felix Ströckens from the Department of Biopsychology at Ruhr University Bochum set about the task of scanning Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) brains using a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner. These devices are typically used in diagnostic and research settings, and even for studying mammals such as dogs, but this is the first time a cold-blooded animal has been analyzed in such a machine. The results of the new study now appear in the science journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (Full Story)
I believe the best summary of the results is “Crocs like Bach.”
For the experiment, the researchers exposed five juvenile crocodiles to various visual and auditory stimuli. The visual cues consisted of flashing red and green lights, which flickered on and off at changing strengths and intervals. Simple auditory cues involved random chord noises between 1,000 Hz and 3,000 Hz. For the complex sounds, the researchers played a part of Johann Sebastian Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 (which was used previously in other animal studies, thus providing a good baseline).
Results showed that different areas of the crocodilian brain activated in the presence of complex sounds compared to basic noises. And in fact, the patterns observed resembled those seen in mammals and birds exposed to music. These observations suggest that the structural and functional aspects of sensory processing are present in the reptilian brain, and that these abilities were preserved and passed down the evolutionary family tree (assuming that modern crocodiles share similar brain structures as their ancestors). It’s a fascinating result, said Ströckens, since crocs are a relatively ancient group of species. “Thus it could be that these processing principals evolved much earlier than we thought before,” he said.
The International Phonetic Alphabet consonants found in English, with keywords and relevant parts of the mouth highlighted and colour-coded. (Source.)