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05 Jul 18:48

The SQL and NoSQL Effects: Will They Ever Learn? UPDATED

by noreply@blogger.com (Fabian Pascal)
UPDATE: I refer readers to Apache Cassandra … What Happened Next. Note that this was an optimal use case for NoSQL. Read it focused on the simplicity of the data model and particularly physical data independence relative to RDM. 

In Oracle and the NoSQL Effect, Robin Schumacher (RS), a former "data god" DBA and MySQL executive now working for a NoSQL vendor claims that Oracle’s recent fiscal Q4 miss--a fraction of what's to come--is due to its failure to recognize that
"... web apps ushered in a new model for development and distributed systems that ... [r]elational databases are fundamentally ill suited to handle ... Their master-slave architectures, methods for writing and reading data, and data distribution mechanisms simply cannot meet the key requirements of modern web, mobile and IoT applications. I tell you that not as an employee of a NoSQL company, but as a guy who has worked with RDBMS’s for over twenty-five years. In short, you simply can’t get there from here where relational technology is concerned, and that’s why NoSQL must be used for the applications we’re talking about.

Read more »
03 Jul 11:33

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/EduardoMacan/~3/IgxhDmj5TxI/

by Eduardo Maçan

É uma piada. A "Convenção da Apostila" foi assinada em Haia em 1961, entrou em vigor em 1965 e só 50 anos depois o Brasil resolve olhar para a matéria. Essa convenção simplifica MUITO a burocracia para quem precisa validar documentos em outro país ou de outro país. Hoje, por não fazer parte da convenção da apostila o brasileiro precisa de "carimbos" de dois países para legalizar um diploma, ou certidão estrangeira.

A participação na convenção irá simplificar a burocracia para brasileiros que queiram abrir empresas no exterior ou estrangeiros que queiram abrir empresas no Brasil também.

A graça da coisa toda está na seguinte informação do site do relator da matéria: o Brasil foi signatário do acordo em 1961, mas ele não entrou em vigor porque o congresso nunca o tinha referendado. Ou seja: Um tratado internacional de REDUÇÃO DE BUROCRACIA levou 53 ANOS para ser analisado pela nossa burocracia.

E digo que só foi (e em apenas uma semaninha) porque a coisa começou a apertar muito pro nosso lado graças à "crise internacional pela qual o Brasil está passando".

Aqui a notícia na página do Senador Anastasia, (é diferente da que está compartilhada no post)
http://antonioaugustoanastasia.com.br/senado-aprova-decreto-relatado-por-anastasia-que-desburocratiza-processos-para-brasileiros-no-exterior/

Ah, essa mania de só agir quando a água bate no "derrière"...

Legalização simplificada de documentos públicos estrangeiros vai à promulgação

O Senado aprovou nesta quinta-feira (2) o Projeto de Decreto Legislativo 208/2015, que trata da convenção sobre a eliminação da exigência de legalização dos documentos públicos estrangeiros, celebrada em Haia em outubro de 1961. A matéria, que foi aprovada pela manhã na Comissão de Relações Exterior…

01 Jul 19:37

Comemorar por quê?

by Norma
Eu não sou exatamente a favor da redução da maioridade penal em casos de estupro, latrocínio e homicídio qualificado, como propôs a PEC 171/93 que foi rejeitada hoje, mas sim da retribuição adequada do Estado aos crimes graves cometidos por menores de qualquer idade. Mesmo assim, fiquei triste com a decisão final - e sobretudo fiquei sem entender o porquê da comemoração toda. Como a situação está agora, parece que tudo pende em favor do menor infrator (considerado vítima do sistema) e contra as vítimas (e seus parentes que clamam por justiça). Mas não é bem assim. A ausência de retribuição adequada faz com que os menores sejam presas fáceis dos criminosos adultos, que os usam sem escrúpulo nenhum para fazer o trabalho sujo. Os menores também acabam se tornando vítimas - não do "sistema", mas do mundo do crime. Por que esse fato não é levado em conta? Será que é porque os políticos mais famosos anti-redução estão muito ocupados em chamar gente como eu de "fascista", "racista" e "homofóbica" (??? - um ponto de interrogação para cada xingamento).

A matéria diz que a discussão continua. Vamos aguardar.
30 Jun 17:22

The Olympus AIR MFT camera gets announced in USA! Preorders for $299 at Amazon/BHphoto.

by 43rumors

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Bildschirmfoto 2015-06-30 um 19.20.08

Olympus US just announced that it will ship the AIR MFT camera in USA too. First preorders are available at Amazon (Click here), Adorama (Click here), GetOlympus (Click here) and BHphoto for $299 (Click here).

Here is the full press text:

Bildschirmfoto 2015-06-30 um 20.52.31

Olympus has announced the US release of the Air A01, a smartphone-controlled camera with a 16.05MP Micro Four Thirds sensor. The Air A01 is shaped like a lens and connects directly to your smartphone so that your phone’s screen effectively becomes the camera’s live view display. While the Air A01 looks like a lens, it is really a camera that is designed to combine the quality of a larger image sensor and versatility of an interchangeable-lens system with the ease and convenience of a smartphone.

Once attached to your smartphone, the Air A01 connects to it wirelessly via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi and uses the OA Central App to control the camera’s settings. The app provides a means of image composition and review, direct-to-cloud uploads, and six shooting functions to help edit your photos and full HD 1080p videos. The app also facilitates working with the camera in a remote manner to better suit working from high or low angles, uncoupled to your smartphone.

The 16.05MP Digital Live MOS Sensor pairs with Olympus’s TruePic VII image processing engine for enhanced image quality, especially in low-light situations, with a sensitivity range of up to ISO 12800. This processor and sensor combination also affords a top shooting rate of 10 fps for up to 23 frames, full HD 1080p/30 video recording, a top shutter speed of 1/16000-second, and the ability to record both raw and JPG files.

The Air A01 uses a FAST 81-area contrast-detection AF system, which quickly locks on focus and can be configured with Face Detection AF or Eye Detection AF settings for more critical control. Images and movies can be stored internally on a microSD memory card, directly on your smart phone, or uploaded to cloud-based storage sites using the built-in Wi-Fi and your smartphone.

Utilizing a Micro Four Thirds mount, the camera accepts a wide variety of lenses, including the use of third-party lenses via optional lens mount adapters. It is available in a body-only option in black or white, or in a kit with ablack 14-42mm EZ Lens or a white 14-42mm EZ Lens.

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26 Jun 18:25

Josh Berkus: Elephants in Containers

main-image

In the wake of DockerCon, the July meetup in San Francisco will be all about Linux Containers:

  • Chris Winslett of Compose.io will present Governor, an auto-failover system for managing a cluster of PostgreSQL replicas.
  • Madhuri Yechuri of ClusterHQ will explain Flocker, which uses the brand-new plugin interface for Docker in order to support volume management and data migration for containers.

If you're not familiar with all of this containerish stuff, Josh Berkus will do a 5-minute primer on using Postgres with Docker at the beginning of the session. Hosted by Salesforce.com in their new Rincon Cafe.

(note: Salesforce will require attendees to RSVP with their full names, and sign a confidentiality statement, which will be supplied to attendees in advance)

26 Jun 16:19

Suprema Corte dos EUA legaliza casamento gay

by Norma
- O mundo segue firme rumo ao fim do casamento.

- Ué, por que, Norma?

- Porque havia motivos para o Estado regular e proteger o casamento tradicional: a maior fragilidade da mulher e dos filhos. Não porque o Estado é "bonzinho", mas porque estava especialmente interessado na estabilidade do núcleo familiar como o ambiente ideal para a formação de seus futuros cidadãos. Agora que as diferenças entre os sexos estão ruindo, mulheres e crianças vão deixar de ser especialmente protegidas em uma futura mudança da legislação. Duvida? Então aguarde.

- Mas o que isso tem a ver com o casamento gay?

- Quando o Estado passa a proteger uma união em que ninguém é especialmente frágil, todo mundo fica frágil, certo? Sem os fundamentos corretos para as leis, novos fundamentos são gestados. O Estado poderá passar a proteger outras relações com base em... nada de muito sólido. Com base no simples desejo "eu quero ser casado e reconhecido como tal". Sem o dever da criação de filhos, ou seja, sem a contrapartida ética. Uma sociedade que baseia o núcleo familiar em um sentimento, não na ética, não poderá durar muito. E um Estado que se interessa por regular todo tipo de relação não está pensando no bem comum, mas em seu próprio engrandecimento: quanto mais regulações, maior ele fica. Essa é uma decisão ruim que os gays que tiverem alguma consciência política ainda vão lamentar muito.

Quer ler mais sobre o assunto? Indico o livro (em inglês) What is marriage? Man and Woman: A Defense, de três autores que argumentam em uma linha próxima à desta postagem. Disponível em Kindle.
24 Jun 00:00

Introducing HypoPG, hypothetical indexes for PostgreSQL

Paris, June 24 2015

DALIBO is proud to present the first release of HypoPG, an extension that adds hypothetical indexes in PostgreSQL.

A hypothetical index is an index that doesn't exists on disk. It's therefore almost instant to create and doesn't add any IO cost, whether at creation time or at maintenance time. The goal is obviously to check if an index is useful before spending too much time, I/O and disk space to create it.

With this extension, you can create hypothetical indexes, and then with EXPLAIN check if PostgreSQL would use them or not.

What if I had an Index on this ?

Did you ever wonder how an index would increase the performances of your server, but you couldn't afford the time to create it on disk just for the sake of trying ?

Here's how HypoPG can help:

First let's create a simple use case:

# CREATE TABLE testable 
#   AS SELECT id, 'line ' || id val 
#   FROM generate_series(1,1000000) id;
# ANALYZE testable ;

Now let's install HypoPG and create an hypothetical index on this new table

# CREATE EXTENSION hypopg;
# SELECT hypopg_create_index('CREATE INDEX ON testable (id)');

You can now use EXPLAIN (without ANALYZE) to check if PostgreSQL would use that index !

# EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM testable WHERE id = 1000 ;
                                          QUERY PLAN
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Index Scan using 41079_btree_testable_id on testable  (cost=0.05..8.07 rows=1 width=15)
   Index Cond: (id = 1000)
(2 rows)

Yay ! If there were an index on the 'id' column, PostgreSQL would take advantage of it !

Links

About DALIBO :

DALIBO is the leading PostgreSQL company in France, providing support, trainings and consulting to its customers since 2005. The company contributes to the PostgreSQL community in various ways, including : code, articles, translations, free conferences and workshops

Check out DALIBO's open source projects at http://dalibo.github.io.

http://www.dalibo.com

27 May 14:18

Humberto de Campos ama a própria voz, não a literatura

by Rodrigo Gurgel

Humberto de Campos é desses raros polígrafos da literatura brasileira — semelhante a Coelho Neto no volume de escritos e no esquecimento a que foi condenado. Ambos, aliás, maranhenses.

Contista, cronista, biógrafo, poeta, crítico e memorialista, sua obra não recebeu leitura e julgamento abrangentes, muito menos definitivos. O que também não acontece nesta análise, restrita a um único livro — a coletânea “O Monstro e outros contos”, publicada em 1932.

O escritor falecido prematuramente, aos 48 anos, que venceu a pobreza, a ignorância e o isolamento cultural, impondo-se no jornalismo graças à própria inteligência — sem depender da caridade do governo, que hoje se tornou imprescindível para os moralmente fracos —, merece, também por sua vasta bibliografia, ser arrancado do limbo a que nossas elites esquerdistas condenam os que não seguem sua cartilha.

Da sobriedade à retórica

O conto que abre o volume — “O Monstro” — pretende flagrar a natureza no momento seguinte ao da Criação. Narrativa genésica, sua linguagem é característica da fantasia dos mitos. Neste caso, um mito pessimista, que coloca Dor e Morte como criadoras do homem. O tom sóbrio, que infelizmente desaparecerá nos outros contos, alia-se, em certos trechos, a uma composição correta:

Em passo triste, a Dor e a Morte caminham, olhando, sem interesse, as maravilhas da Criação. Raramente marcham lado a lado. A Dor vai sempre à frente, ora mais vagarosa, ora mais apressada; a outra, sempre no mesmo ritmo, não se adianta, nem se atrasa.

A compassada harmonia que marca as inseparáveis irmãs será destruída no final hermético, em que o homem, no centro de uma disputa ciumenta, acaba por ser apenas um monte de lama carregado nos ombros da Morte.

No relato seguinte, “A Promessa”, a sobriedade que marca “O Monstro” começa a desaparecer. Mas a história da mãe, Maria Inácia, desesperada pela idéia de que o único filho, João Vicente, pode morrer na Revolução Federalista, ainda apresenta o narrador atento ao detalhe que, inserido no trecho correto, amplia a verossimilhança:

Doze dias depois, estavam as forças de que era um dos componentes acampadas nas vizinhanças de uma pequena cidade do interior, na zona de guerra, quando o João Vicente recebeu, com a sua companhia, munição de combate. Em torno do corpo, nos bolsos do cinturão forte, os cartuchos punham um peso novo, que, no entanto, pouco o afligia.

O narrador também se mostra apto a desenvolver a psicologia do personagem. Após os primeiros combates, em que João Vicente se comporta de forma destemida, o jovem amadurece:

[…] Não era, porém, mais, aquele rapagão claro das serenatas do Araçá. A barba forte, que raspava toda antigamente, tomava-lhe agora o rosto, envelhecendo-o, dando-lhe os ares daqueles cangaceiros do Nordeste, que via passar, às vezes, a cavalo, pela vila, com a faca de um lado, a garrucha de outro, e o clavinote na lua da sela. A vida militar absorvera o boêmio. Era, agora, um soldado.

Da mesma forma, a mãe solitária, que se entrega a orações contínuas, passa da fé simples ao misticismo febril, no qual a divindade é tratada como impassível comerciante:

[…] As promessas multiplicaram-se. Até que, uma noite, em um momento de maior aflição, ofereceu, com toda a sua alma devota:

— Minha Senhora das Dores! Trazei meu filho são, e salvo, ainda uma vez, à minha vista, que eu vos dou a minha vida!

E com todo o fervor da contrição, num acesso de choro:

— A minha vida pela dele, Minha Mãe Santíssima!… A minha vida pela dele!… Mas que eu ainda veja meu filho!…

Humberto de Campos ama a própria voz

A retórica degrada o livro de forma incontrolável.

A retórica, contudo, já se intromete, desequilibrando o texto:

Calada por essa maneira a arma que mais os hostilizava, os assaltantes, desprezando a fuzilaria, puseram-se de pé e investiram contra a trincheira, rangendo os dentes. E, em breve, após um curto combate à arma branca, em que os homens da mesma pátria se retalhavam, se dilaceravam, se estraçalhavam com fúria sanguinária, tomavam os legalistas posse do reduto, onde o sangue coagulado se misturava, repugnante, entre zumbidos de moscas, com dejeções humanas e com a lama da chuva da véspera.

O exagero produz efeito contrário ao planejado. E o que poderia ser uma cena realista, emocionante, transforma-se no quadro, tão comum na literatura brasileira, no qual a eloqüência se sobrepõe à mensagem.

O problema se agrava nesta descrição:

[…] avolumado pelos riachos da montanha, o rio Araçá rolava agora transformado em torrente, arrastando galhos de árvores e moitas de aninga no turbilhão das suas águas escachoantes. Comprimido pelas ribanceiras, que ia lambendo numa volúpia furiosa de sátiro, fazia vertigem vê-lo. De quando em quando, um ruído cavo alarmava os moradores ribeirinhos. Era a queda de um barranco, de uma barreira da margem, que logo se dissolvia em rodopios, na retorta diabólica daquelas águas.

Perceba-se que, graças à verborragia, o texto torna-se pleonástico: “turbilhão das suas águas escachoantes”, “volúpia furiosa de sátiro” e “retorta diabólica daquelas águas” pretendem criar novas imagens para a ideia de movimento incontrolável — e, exatamente por nada acrescentarem, poderiam ser suprimidas sem perda da expressividade.

Quanto mais avançamos, mais esses adornos pomposos predominam — e mais o autor se distancia da fórmula cuja beleza nasce da substancialidade das palavras, presente, por exemplo, neste período: “Em uma árvore próxima, chiavam cigarras, limando o silêncio” (no relato “O Caldo”). Graças ao sentido metafórico, o verbo “limar” amplia a realidade, surpreende, domina a imaginação do leitor, impondo-se com mais força do que uma sucessão de adjetivos inúteis.

Grandiloqüência e repetições

A retórica, no entanto, degrada o livro de forma incontrolável. Muitas vezes, unindo-se a melosos lugares-comuns:

[…] Rosinha, cuja beleza se acentuava à medida que se tornava mulher e o amor lhe penetrava, como uma aurora, aos abismos floridos da alma.

Repete-se, a cada conto, a insistência de criar imagens originais — mas a maioria concede ao texto aspecto ridículo. Em “Catimbau”, o narrador não hesita em dizer, sobre a personagem que se ruboriza: “As orelhas pequenas tornaram-se-lhe de lacre, como duas cristas de galo garnizé” — comparação esdrúxula, que não condiz com a personagem e nada lhe acrescenta.

O discurso empolado surge também para teatralizar determinadas cenas. À escolta que, malvestida e descalça, persegue bandoleiros no sertão, o narrador acrescenta, em “A luz dos mortos”, sem qualquer justificativa, sua literatice untuosa:

[…] Das matas quietas subia, e espalhava-se, um cheiro forte de folhas machucadas, como se a natureza virgem se martirizasse em um grande sonho voluptuoso. As sarças rasteiras, abrindo cálices roxos em que a Noite se embebedara de orvalho, acordavam, úmidas, emergindo do labirinto das próprias ramas, polvilhadas de terra e de sereno.

E logo a seguir, ansioso para provocar náuseas no leitor:

[…] Aqui e ali, na mata ressuscitada, uma árvore morta sonhava com os encantos da vida, oferecendo ao sol, em cima, no espectro do último galho, o óbulo de uma flor humilde, cujo cipó se lhe agarrara ao tronco para ir dar, no alto, ao astro namorado, a cheirosa esmola daquele beijo. […]

A grandiloqüência, entretanto, torna-se um problema menor quando nos deparamos com a pobreza vocabular.

Em “O Alce”, o narrador volta a tempos primevos e nos coloca diante da “boca monstruosa” de uma caverna:

[…] Aberta na rocha bruta pela força inconsciente das grandes águas primitivas, a enorme furna constituíra o refúgio seguro dos tímidos veados perseguidos, que ali iam repousar, assustados, contra a voracidade dos leões do deserto. [Aqui — e no parágrafo seguinte — os grifos são meus.]

Humberto de Campos ama a própria voz

A grandiloqüência, entretanto, torna-se um problema menor quando nos deparamos com a pobreza vocabular.

Em meio à fúria dos adjetivos, perceba-se que tudo é, de alguma forma, desmedido. Mas, insatisfeito, o narrador fala, nesse conto de seis páginas, da caverna cuja “goela” é “enorme”, de “grandes pedras amontoadas”, de “grandes herbívoros adormecidos”, da “enorme floresta repousada”, das “grandes várzeas pontilhadas do sangue dos cardos floridos”. O troglodita tem “mãos de grandes unhas”; a mulher apresenta um “tumultuoso caudal de cabelos desordenados”, capazes de se contrapor ao verde da folhagem como “uma grande mancha”. Há “grandes formigas” e uma “grande faia de raízes à flor do solo”. Um “grande alce” luta com outro e formam, ao vergar seus dorsos, “dois arcos enormes”, o que, claro, é a “grande luta dos cervos”.

A sanha do exagero prossegue por todo o livro. Em “O Seringueiro”,

[…] A noite caía lenta, envolvendo tudo, como um sudário imenso, lançado sobre a terra pela piedade divina. O céu, estrelado e baixo, parecia a cúpula enorme da tenda suntuosa de um poderoso rei oriental.

A lama racha sob o sol, em “Retirantes”, parte-se na forma de “escamas escuras” que lembram “a carapaça de uma tartaruga monstruosa”.

E ao exagero soma-se o grotesco, como nesta cena, em que a velha empobrecida pela seca escava um túmulo para roubar as vestimentas do defunto:

[…] Ao balanço do seu corpo esguio, impelindo a enxada, os seios flácidos e compridos fustigavam-lhe as costelas e o ventre magro, oscilando, doidos, à semelhança de dois badalos sem eco de uma velha torre desmoronada.

Talvez uma das comparações mais infelizes e desproporcionais da literatura brasileira.

Ritmo ternário

O autor coleciona lugares-comuns ao dizer “o sol da mocidade em franco declínio”, “entregando-lhe o seu corpo e o seu destino sem, contudo, entregar-lhe a sua alma” e “não há estrada escura e coberta de espinhos que o Amor não ilumine e recubra de flores”.

Mas tudo pode ficar pior. Humberto de Campos também aprecia o tipo de acumulação esquemática que descobrimos nas crônicas de Olavo Bilac (ver meu ensaio “Perfumaria bilaquiana”, em Esquecidos & Superestimados). O trio de palavras ou expressões encadeadas repete-se incansavelmente. Num único relato, “Herodes”, a fila é extensa:

Um espanto, um susto alegre, uma inquietação feliz parecia apossar-se das cousas […]

Nos seus olhos escuros, que a febre incendiava intermitentemente, boiavam a revelação de uma vida civilizada, a reminiscência de sociedades polidas, a lembrança inequívoca de um ambiente invulgar.

Pusemos-lhe à disposição os nossos cobertores, o nosso quinino, as nossas bolachas. […]

Que as mulheres lindas não fossem minhas; mas, também, que não fossem de outros braços, de outros lábios, de outra luxúria.

Essa preocupação turvava até as minhas conquistas felizes, o meu prazer, as minhas horas de ventura.

Os maridos, os amantes, os noivos de agora seriam vingados. Dentro de alguns anos viriam outros homens, mais jovens, mais vigorosos, mais arrogantes, que tomariam, por sua vez, minha noiva, minha mulher, minhas amantes.

[…] a que se misturavam ainda as mil vozes, os mil gritos, os mil anseios da noite que declinava.

As mulheres eram perdoadas, abençoadas, amparadas.

Era o escândalo, que se anunciava. Era a condenação, que vinha. Era a prisão infalível.

À previsibilidade do ritmo frasal soma-se a previsibilidade dos finais: o último parágrafo revela sempre, necessariamente, a tentativa de escandalizar por meio de detalhes que ressaltem a ruína física ou moral, ainda que ela já tenha sido demonstrada.

Nem o melhor se salva

É o que ocorre no melhor conto do volume, “Os olhos que comiam carne”, em que o intelectual acometido de cegueira busca o auxílio de um cirurgião famoso e acaba condenado a ver apenas a ossatura das pessoas. As conseqüências da operação e o desespero do paciente estão claros parágrafos antes do final, mas Humberto de Campos precisa selar a narrativa com sua prosa extravagante:

E, metendo as unhas no rosto, afunda-as nas órbitas, e arranca, num movimento de desespero, os dois glóbulos ensangüentados  e tomba escabujando no solo, esmagando nas mãos aqueles olhos que comiam carne, e que, devorando macabramente a carne aos vivos, transformavam a vida humana, em torno, em um sinistro baile de esqueletos…

Esse e outros são finais de falso impacto, em que a linguagem enfeitada e pedante contribui para tornar inconvincentes histórias de trama esquemática, quando não artificial, pois o autor aplica a mesma fórmula de composição a todos os contos.

Se é possível, diante dessas inutilidades, um julgamento sintético, podemos dizer que, como outros escritores excessivamente narcisistas, Humberto de Campos ama a própria voz, não a literatura.

The post Humberto de Campos ama a própria voz, não a literatura appeared first on Rodrigo Gurgel.

15 May 01:25

Essa é dedicada aos colegas da engenharia de computação unicamp, turma de 92 :)

by Eduardo Maçan

Essa é dedicada  aos colegas da engenharia de computação unicamp, turma de 92 :)

Essa é dedicada aos colegas da engenharia de computação unicamp, turma de 92 :)

08 May 09:42

(FT3) Some more tidbits about the “geomembrane” Olympus sensor.

by 43rumors

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EM1

Source “Simon” added some info to his previous “geomembrane” rumor (43rumors post here):

I asked again to explain me what ment “Geomembrane”. He said, that this is a shortcut for “Gyro Electodes Organic Membran”. That means for non engineers like me, that you can upgrade the “view angle”for the sensor from (EM-1)today 36 ° to the new sensor 58°. This leads to an increasing absorption capability. BUT again, this for the future System expecting announced in September 2016 !!

As fare as i understood it right, that means the Sensor will make 10 photos to one high resolution picture. With the em-5 mkII You Need a tripod, with the new em-1 you Can Do it freehand.


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03 May 23:37

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/EduardoMacan/~3/pQfjbabyTq0/

by Eduardo Maçan

A organização "Transparência Internacional" divulgou a atualização do seu ranking de percepção da corrupção. Aqui uma apresentação no formato de mapa interativo.

Entre nossos vizinhos, perdemos de goleada para Uruguai e Chile, mas somos menos corruptos que os outros (A Guiana entrou no índice da França). O país mais corrupto da América do Sul é a Venezuela (que surpresa!) bem próxima da Coréia do Norte, lá na lanterna.

Quanto mais vermelho-escuro no mapa, mais corrupto.

http://i100.independent.co.uk/article/the-most-corrupt-countries-in-the-world-ranked-in-order--xJUZ5u9j_x

The most corrupt countries in the world, ranked in order

---The most corrupt countries in the world, ranked in orderPosted 5 months ago by Evan Bartlett in newsUpvoteUpvoted Click on the map to scroll Transparency International has released its annual Corruption Perceptions Index, which ranks 175 countries on their levels of public sector corruption. A st…

30 Apr 17:22

Debian GNU/Hurd 2015 released

by ris
Debian GNU/Hurd 2015 has been released. "This is a snapshot of Debian "sid" at the time of the stable Debian "jessie" release (April 2015), so it is mostly based on the same sources. It is not an official Debian release, but it is an official Debian GNU/Hurd port release."
27 Apr 13:08

"O melhor modelo de processos é, com frequência, prontamente derrotado pelo mau comportamento humano" Communications of the ACM, vol 58, pg 63.

by Eduardo Maçan

"O melhor modelo de processos é, com frequência,  prontamente derrotado pelo mau comportamento humano" Communications of the ACM, vol 58, pg 63.

"O melhor modelo de processos é, com frequência, prontamente derrotado pelo mau comportamento humano" Communications of the ACM, vol 58, pg 63.

22 Apr 21:05

Armenia’s Genocide and Obama’s Shame

by David P. Goldman

Despite a 2008 campaign promise “to recognize the Armenian genocide,” President Obama refuses to follow Pope Francis’ example and call the murder of 1.5 million Armenian civilians by its right name. Of all the despicable things this administration has done, this one stands out for vile hypocrisy. CNN reports:

President Barack Obama, wary of damaging relations with Turkey amid growing unrest in the Middle East, won’t use the 100th anniversary of the massacre of Armenians under the Ottoman Empire to declare the brutal episode a genocide.

Despite Obama’s campaign promise in 2008 to “recognize the Armenian Genocide” as president, the White House on Tuesday issued a carefully worded statement on a high-level administration meeting with Armenian groups that avoided using the term “genocide.”

An administration official said Obama, who will mark the centennial this Friday, would similarly avoid using the word. The term angers Ankara, which denies that Ottoman Turks carried out a genocide.

“President Obama’s surrender to Turkey represents a national disgrace. It is, very simply, a betrayal of truth, a betrayal of trust,” said Ken Hachikian, the chairman of the Armenian National Committee of America.

Despite the threat of retaliation against Turkey’s small and defenseless Christian community–the remnant of what once was a fifth of the Turkish population–the Vatican has had the courage to use the word genocide, and first did so in 2000. Not Obama, whose concern for Muslim sensibilities outweighs every other consideration.

If you don’t think telling the truth matters, think again: The world’s disgusting indifference to the Armenian genocide is what convinced Adolf Hitler that he could get away with genocide, too. This is what Hitler said about the matter in 1939:

My decision to attack Poland was arrived at last spring. Originally, I feared that the political constellation would compel me to strike simultaneously at England, Russia, France, and Poland. Even this risk would have had to be taken….Our strength consists in our speed and in our brutality. Genghis Khan led millions of women and children to slaughter — with premeditation and a happy heart. History sees in him solely the founder of a state. It’s a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilization will say about me.

I have issued the command — and I’ll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad — that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formations in readiness — for the present only in the East — with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space (Lebensraum)which we need. Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?

43 countries–including Russia, Italyk, France, Sweden Poland and the Netherlands–recognize the Armenian genocide. Not the United States of America. It is a shame and disgrace.

17 Apr 13:48

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/EduardoMacan/~3/A800RN0TH1o/

by Eduardo Maçan

Vixe, mais um fundo de pensão dilapidado? Que inocência da minha parte achar que fosse só o fundo de pensão dos correios. É fácil recompô-lo! Como no caso dos correios basta descontar uma parte do salário de todos os contribuintes do fundo durante alguns anos.

Se você não leu "A Revolução dos Bichos", aqui vai um spoiler: É por essas e outras que o cavalo morre.

Gilberto Dimenstein

Preparem-se para esse escândalo: descobriram que o fundo de pensão da Petrobras ( Petros), dirigido por sindicalistas ligados à CUT ( ou seja PT), produziu um rombo de mais de R$ 6 bilhões. Isso mesmo, R$ 6 bilhões. Suspeita-se de um misto de roubalheira com má gestão, além de uso político dos recursos.
Só espero que não venham cobrar essa fatura da sociedade. Processem os irresponsáveis. Ou cubram a despesa com os funcionários.
Quando eu alertava que o aparelhamento da máquina pública sairia caro, confesso que não imaginava que seria tão caro.

13 Apr 16:18

Blackmagic announces two amazing Micro Cinema Cameras with MFT mount!

by 43rumors

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Bildschirmfoto 2015-04-13 um 18.18.32

We have two new Micro Four Thirds cameras from Blackmagic. All the info can be read here:
Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera info (Click here).
Blackmagic Micro Studio Camera 4K info (Click here).

You can preorder the camera at BHphoto (Click here) and Adorama (Click here).

From the press text:

Introducing the Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera, a miniaturized Super 16mm, professional digital film camera that is designed to be operated remotely and capture action anywhere! A revolutionary built in expansion port has PWM and S.Bus inputs so you can use a model airplane remote control to operate the camera wirelessly. Imagine adjusting focus, iris and zoom wirelessly! The Micro Cinema Camera is a true digital film camera that features built in RAW and ProRes recording, 13 stops of dynamic range, a global shutter and an MFT lens mount. You get a true digital film camera that can go where no other digital film camera can!

Bildschirmfoto 2015-04-13 um 18.21.35

The Super 16 sensor is full 1080 HD resolution and has an incredible 13 stops of dynamic range and global shutter up to 30 frames per second. Most DSLR and action cameras use a rolling shutter that exposes different parts of the image in fractions of a second, causing video to appear skewed or wobbly when the camera moves or vibrates. The Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera’s global shutter acts more like a still camera, exposing the entire image at the same time so you get distortion and ripple free video! With an ISO up to 1600, the Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera also gives you great quality, even in locations with low lighting.

-

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12 Apr 01:59

Why Don’t Americans Trust Republicans on Foreign Policy?

by David P. Goldman

Riddle me this, fellow Republicans. An NBC survey April 9 reports that a huge majority (70%) of Americans doubt that Iran will abide by any agreement to limit its nuclear arms–but a majority (54%) still thinks Obama will do a better job than the Republicans in dealing with Iran!

A majority of Americans – 54 percent – trust Barack Obama to do a better job handling an agreement with Iran over its nuclear program, compared to 42 percent who say they trust the Republicans in Congress. But nearly 7 in 10 Americans say that Iran is not likely to abide by the agreement that has been reached.

Fifty-three percent think Iranian nukes are a “major threat,” and only 37% think they are a “minor threat.” Most Americans, in short, think Iran is a major threat to American security and think that Obama’s nuclear deal is a joke–but they still want Obama in charge of the negotiations, not us.

Maybe NBC made the numbers up. Maybe a proofreader got the numbers reversed. And maybe pigs will sprout wings.

There is a much simpler explanation: Most Americans don’t trust Republicans on matters of war and peace. Not after the nation-building disasters in Iraq and Afghanistan, that is. Why should they trust us? Our leadership has never admitted it made a mistake. Sen. Ted Cruz, to be sure, had the gumption last fall to say that “we got too involved in nation-building” and that “we should not be trying to turn Iraq into Switzerland”–and was excoriated for his trouble by the Bushies. The Republican mainstream is too busy trying to defend the Bush record to address the distrust of American voters.

One gets weary and grows shrill sounding the same note for a decade. I wish the problem would go away.  A couple of weeks ago a friend who served in senior defense positions in the Bush administration remonstrated, “Why do we have to worry about what mistakes were made back then?” The American public doesn’t remember a lot, but it does remember the disruption of millions of lives after the deployment of 2.6 million Americans in Iraq and Afghanistan–not to mention 6,000 dead, 52,000 wounded in action, and hundreds of thousands of other injuries.

11 Apr 18:18

David McGoveran Interview

by noreply@blogger.com (Fabian Pascal)
DBDebunk readers should know of David McGoveran (see his bibliography under FUNDAMENTALS), whose work on relational theory and practice has appeared or been discussed on the old site and here over the years. On more than one occasion I mentioned the Principle of Orthogonal Design (POOD) identified by David, who had published several years ago work he did on the subject with Chris Date. The POOD has relevance to updating relations and particularly views and led to Date's VIEW UPDATING AND RELATIONAL THEORY book .

I recently mentioned that David's and Date's understandings on POOD have diverged since their joint effort--currently Date and Darwen reject the POOD as formulated then and David has problems with Date's understanding of it and with their THE THIRD MANIFESTO (TTM) book.

David is working on a book tentatively titled LOGIC FOR SERIOUS DATABASE FOLKS where he will detail his views on RDM in general and POOD and view updating in particular, but in the meantime I asked him to publish an early draft of a chapter on the latter subject, which he did-- Can All Relations Be Updated?--and which he has just revised.

He has asked me to post a clarification on the nature of the differences with Date and Darwen (see next) and I used the opportunity to interview him about his impressive career, which covers much more than database management. David provided written answers to questions.

Read more »
07 Apr 23:00

Open Standards around the world

Document Freedom Day is the day when we talk about Open Standards around the world. In 2015, all together, we turned this day once more into a global event with 63 local event organisers in 31 countries on 4 continents. Volunteers around the world, accompanied by international organisations as well as politicians and public services joined our demand for document freedom. Read our report to see what happened during Document Freedom Day 2015.

Support FSFE, join the Fellowship
Make a one time donation

07 Apr 16:54

A Case for Preemptive War Against Iran

by David P. Goldman

Crossposted from Asia Times

 

Most of the great wars of the past would have been far less bloody had they begun sooner. That emphatically is true of the First World War: if Germany had launched a preemptive assault on France during the First Morocco Crisis of 1905, before Britain had signed the Entente Cordiale with France and while Russia was busy with an internal rebellion, the result would have been a repeat of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 rather than the ghastly war of attrition that all but ruined Western civilization. It was a tragedy that the vacillating Kaiser Wilhelm II rejected the counsel of his general staff and kept the peace. I do not mean to impute moral superiority to Wilhelmine Germany, but to argue, simply, that swift victory by one side was preferable to what followed. It is hardly controversial to argue that Britain and France should have prepared for war with Germany and preempted Hitler’s ambitions no later than the 1936 re-occupation of the Rhineland.

The West likes to think that it has attained a higher plane of rationality, after the great blood-lettings of its past–the two World Wars of the last century, the Napoleonic Wars of the 19th century, and the Thirty Years’ War of the 17th century. This is a self-consoling delusion: it is not more rational, but only enervated. It confuses its own lack of interest in the future with moderation. Willful blindness about our own past blinds us to the character of the prospective combatants in the Middle East. In 1914 Europe had achieved an unprecedented prosperity, dependent on a web of commercial relations binding all the European nations into a single economic organism. The peoples of Europe had less to fear from hunger, disease, or domestic violence than any peoples in human history. Europe’s monarchies, moreover, were linked by family ties more closely than at any time in the past. Nonetheless the Europeans chose to eschew their prosperity and sacrifice themselves in now-incomprehensible numbers–for what? For each nation’s belief in its own Chosenness, as I argued in my 2011 book, How Civilizations Die.

Francesco Sisci argues that the economic development of the Eurasian continent under the benign influence of China’s “One Belt, One Road” program may be an important force for peace. That view was also expressed by China’s special envoy for the Middle East, Gong Xiaosheng. The question to ask is why Europe’s prosperity and economic interdependence failed to hinder the outbreak of the First World War. China’s view of the world is rational, but rational to a fault: the Chinese, who have created a civilization that has endured thousands of years by integrating different peoples and suppressing ethnic differences, fail to appreciate how irrationally the barbarians outside their civilization may behave. There is a path towards a Pax Sinica in the Middle East, I argued in 2013, but it requires the calculated use of Chinese influence to frighten the Iranians into behaving themselves. China has concentrated on economic diplomacy, and succeeded brilliantly in the case of the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank, but I see no indication of a paralle effort in the realm of strategic diplomacy.

Some wars will happen, whether we want them to or not. They arise from the roots of national identity. The nations of Europe fought the First World War in the ultimately futile effort to avoid becoming what they are today, I wrote on the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War: “Men are immoderate. We are not as different from our fathers as we like to think. The childless, hedonistic Europeans of today are the same people who fought and died in their millions for king and country in 1618 or 1814. Anything worth living for is worth dying for; if we can think of nothing we would die for, it means that we have nothing to live for, either – like today’s Europeans. Europe learned at length that blood and soil, Kultur and Grandeur, were not worth fighting for. But Europe could find nothing to live for after it forswore the national gods of its violent past. It is dying of enervation and ennui, disgusted with its past and unconcerned for its future, unwilling to bring sufficient numbers of children into the world to ensure its survival for another century.”

Iran has not yet learned this lesson, and it will only learn it the same way the nations of Europe learned it in the past century. It may be that the ayatollahs are following an apocalyptic script that ultimately will lead to their mutual destruction in a nuclear war with Israel or one of their Sunni neighbors. I doubt that, and I do not think the issue is important. Iran’s position in the Middle East today parallels the position of democratic France in 1914: an ambitious power with grand ambitions at the cusp of demographic decline, whose last chance to assert its regional dominance is at hand. The German and French population were more less equal at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870; by 1913, Germany had grown by 70% while France had stagnated, probably because France was the first country to secularize.

germanyfrance

 

Anglo-Saxon historiography long has blamed Germany for the First World War, an easy conviction before the bar of history given its culpability for the Second. Christopher Clark has now shown in his bestselling book The Sleepwalkers  that Russia’s mobilization forced Germany’s hand. If one believes the memoirs of the French ambassador to St. Petersburg, Maurice Paleologue, France urged the Czar towards war. Four-fifths of France’s military age men were already mobilized in the eight months before the outbreak of war, against half of Germany’s. A war of attrition of sorts had already begun; France needed an early resolution because, unlike Germany, it could not sustain the costs continued mobilization.

Demographically, Iran is in a position comparable to that of France in 1914: its military-age population is now approximately half that of three most important Sunni states combined (Pakistan, Turkey and Egypt). By 2020 the ratio will shift to only one-fourth, due to the collapse of Iran’s fertility rate from 7 children per female in 1979 to only 1.6 in 2012. Its 125,000 Revolutionary Guards constitute the best fighting force in the region after overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq. Although Iran lacks a modern air force, it is the dominant land power in the Levant. Saudi Arabia’s new Sunni coalition is an attempt to respond to Iran’s depredations in Yemen and elsewhere, but the fractious and divided Sunnis are far from acting in concert. Pakistan is too preoccupied with India and its internal extremists to send soldiers on foreign adventures, and Turkey has no desire to commit to Saudi leadership in the region. Iran’s strength will peak during the next several years, especially if the lifting of sanctions gives it the money and authority to modernize its armed forces.

UN World Population Prospects (Low Variant)

UN World Population Prospects (Low Variant)

I do not propose to argue that belligerence is a mechanical function of demographics. The point, rather, is that all the factors that contributed to European bellicosity in 1914, and above all to German aggression in 1939, apply a fortiori to Iran: national messianism, the perception of historical injustice, the willingness to sacrifice arbitrary large numbers of lives, contempt for the humanity of neighboring states and–above all–the entirely rational perception that time is running out, and that an inevitable war with neighboring states will become impossible to win not very far into the future.

Even if the proposed agreement with Iran succeeded in suppressing development of nuclear weapons–in my view an unlikely outcome–it will given Iran the resources to prepare for the final settling of accounts with the Sunnis on what ultimately will be an horrific scale. If European diplomats were deluded in their attempts to maintain the balance of power in the years before World War I, today’s diplomats are mad to believe that a balance of power can be established between Iran and its Sunni neighbors. War is already joined in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Somalia, Lebanon and Libya. War is not a choice. It is an event. If Iran were to triumph in the relative short-term, Sunni revenge would be all more terrible in the aftermath. A generation hence, a third of Iranians will be older than 60, the first time in all of history that a poor country will carry such an enormous burden of dependent elderly. The younger populations of its Sunni neighbors will overwhelm it. One has to go back in history before the Thirty Years War, perhaps to Tamerlane, to conceive of the carnage that this will cause. If Iran has nuclear weapons they will be used, and others will use nuclear weapons as well.

The balance of power in the Middle East fell apart when the United States forced a Shia majority government on Iraq through the elections of 2006. That was a catastrophic error. Nothing will quite restore it. But the next best thing, and the best alternative under the circumstances, is to suppress Iran’s ambitions and reinforce the conservative Sunni states as a bulwark against chaos. I continue to believe, as I have argued since 2005, that an American preemptive strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is the best course of action.

*  *  *  *

Postscript, from Michael Morell, Acting and Deputy Director of CIA 2010-2013:

Last month, a senior adviser to Iranian President Hassan Rouhani spoke at a conference in Tehran on “Iran, Nationalism, History, and Culture.” The adviser made clear that Iran’s ambition is to become a regional hegemon — in short, to reestablish the Persian empire…

The adviser, Ali Younesi — who was head of intelligence for former president Mohammad Khatami — told conference attendees, “Since its inception, Iran has [always] had a global [dimension]. It was born an empire. Iran’s leaders, officials and administrators have always thought in the global” dimension.

Younesi defined the territory of the Iranian empire, which he called “Greater Iran,” as reaching from the borders of China and including the Indian subcontinent, the north and south Caucasus and the Persian Gulf. He said Iraq is the capital of the Iranian Empire — a reference to the ancient city of Babylon, in present-day Iraq, which was the center of Persian life for centuries.

“We are protecting the interests of [all] the people in the region — because they are all Iran’s people,” he said. “We must try to once again spread the banner of Islamic-Iranian unity and peace in the region. Iran must bear this responsibility, as it did in the past.”

07 Apr 18:14

A força da narrativa

by Norma

Ando escrevendo muito, mas para mim mesma e/ou para minha dissertação de mestrado, que defendo até o fim do ano, se Deus quiser. Por isso este blog anda parado ("anda parado" é ótimo). Mas tenho publicado coisinhas no Facebook, onde tudo brilha por segundos até desaparecer para sempre - quando não quero que certas coisas desapareçam, publico-as no blog, e é assim que será, até segunda ordem.

Por isso vim aqui hoje: vale a pena dobrar e guardar essa entrevista de Umberto Eco, publicada na revista Época em 2011, quando ele completou 80 anos. Críticas à internet, política internacional, conspirações, hobbies preferidos e a força da narrativa, que segundo ele "é mais efetiva do que qualquer tecnologia". Se quiser conversar sobre o conteúdo, vá aos comentários! Vamos deixar de lado um pouquinho aquele buraco negro que é o Facebook.

 

06 Apr 09:42

Gripen Calendar Image Of The Month

by Saab AB
.:

April_gripen.jpg
Gripen is built for information sharing and collaboration. Its unique data fusion and datalink capabilities are powerful communications solutions, providing superior information advantages.

Photo: Christo Crous​

Download the calendar here​.

Published: 4/6/2015 11:32 AM
06 Apr 04:00

Operating Systems

One of the survivors, poking around in the ruins with the point of a spear, uncovers a singed photo of Richard Stallman. They stare in silence. "This," one of them finally says, "This is a man who BELIEVED in something."
03 Apr 19:50

FSF Blogs: Thousands of Spaniards leave Twitter for GNU social

This guest post was submitted by Daniel Dianes, a Spanish free software activist. Leer esto en español.

Unlike Twitter, which is controlled by a centralized authority, GNU social is a network of independent servers called nodes. Federation technology allows users to communicate between nodes, preserving the unified experience of traditional social media systems, and the free GNU social software allows anybody with an Internet connection to start their own public or private node and join the network. These administrators can even customize their nodes to suit the unique needs of their users.

Since GNU social is decentralized, it's harder for a company or government to censor content or shut down the network when they feel threatened by it. This is more than a hypothetical threat—it has been attempted multiple times by oppressive governments. Spreading out user data also makes bulk surveillance considerably more difficult, as there is no single database to crack into and copy.

Twitter user @Barbijaputa is popular in Spain, with more than 167,000 followers. She's known for criticizing the government or any other political parties or groups of power.

On January 14th, Twitter suspended @Barbijaputa's account after she participated in a conversation about sexually transmitted diseases. The next day, she created a profile on GNU social node Quitter.se and started posting. Her Twitter followers proved willing to follow her all the way to GNU social, and began joining existing nodes en masse and starting their own.

The growth was so explosive that the some of the existing GNU social nodes were unable to handle the traffic. On January 15th, a Quitter administrator posted this note:

"Due to high traffic, I need to stop the registrations for some time to get back in control. Has been a crazy day (15.01.15) on quitter.no and .is - -regards @knuthollund"

The node Quitter.es (Quitter Spain) was created to handle some of the extra people that overloaded existing GNU social instances like Quitter.no and Quitter.is. Quitter Spain now has 6,667 users and counting and Quitter.se reports 4,982 users, due in part to the incoming Spanish users.

GNU social is not the only federated social network challenging the centralized status quo. GNU MediaGoblin lets users publish images, videos, 3D models, and other files, Diaspora* provides a Facebook-like experience and pump.io is another option for microblogging. The Free Software Foundation runs a GNU social node at https://status.fsf.org.

Get started with GNU social today by picking from this list of nodes, and follow the Free Software Foundation at @fsf. Or try pump.io, and follow the FSF account @fsf there. Even if you don't have as many followers as @Barbijaputa, encourage them to follow you!

Daniel Dianes, FSF member #9171

03 Apr 20:35

Cool test: Olympus AIR with the 300mm Four Thirds lens!

by 43rumors

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

One of the advantages of the new Olympus AIR MFT “lens-camera” is that it allows a new kind of shooting with huge tele lenses! The picture on top shows how you can hold the 300mm f/2.8 Four Thirds lens without having to use the tripod. Something that would be much harder to do if you would have a “normal” DSLR or Mirrorless camera on it.

DC.watch posted a full set of images to show how it works (Click on it to enlarge):

Image samples shot with tha combo can be seen at DC.watch.

via photorumors.

 

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01 Apr 18:09

Why Are Jews Liberal?

by David P. Goldman

Liberals believe that social engineering can bring about universal success; conservatives want to foster individual responsibility and initiative. For liberals, the failure of an individual is a failure of society; for conservatives, individuals should be allowed to succeed or fail on their own merits. There are degrees, of course; most conservatives eschew Social Darwinism or Ayn Rand’s egotism, and most liberals do not believe in the strict application of the Communist maxim, “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.” But that is the bright line that divides us conservatives from the liberals.

Why are (most) Jews liberals? That is a trickier question than it might seem. The usual explanation is that Napoleon freed the Jews from the ghetto, and Jews ever since have looked to the secular enlightenment as the source of their welfare rather than the often oppressive attitudes of traditional society. The European Socialists in general advanced Jewish interests while European conservatives in general impaired them. Without the French socialists (during the brief postwar premiership of Leon Blum), Britain almost certainly would have arranged for a successful Arab invasion of Palestine to crush the State of Israel in the cradle. There is something to that, but not enough.

Judaism, as historian Paul Johnson once observed, balances individual and collective. Christians who observe an Orthodox Jewish service will be struck by apparent lack of cohesion. During the preliminary reading of Psalms, worshipers proceed at their own pace, sometimes singing lines out loud. When the congregation stands, individuals will rise and sit down at their own pace rather than as a group. The recitation of the Eighteen Benedictions, the prayer at the center of each Jewish service, is an individual audience with the Lord, and some congregants will remains standing even after the leader begins the public repetition; latecomers will stand and recite after the service has moved on. A derogatory German expression cites “Geschrei wie in einer Judenschule,” or screaming as in a synagogue, referring to the occasional cacophony. There are to be sure moments when the congregation speaks as one. When the congregation declares the Shmah (“Hear!”), it does so in two parts: the first (Deut. 6:4-9) is written in first person singular, and the second (Deut. 11:13-21) restates the same themes in first person plural.

In that respect Judaism is in inherently conservative. Christians enter the Church together as Gentiles to be inducted into Israel, and although they are adopted as individuals, they worship as a body; Jews are already members of God’s people and go to synagogue for a private audience with Almighty as well as collective functions. Jewish law provides for the poor, but the prophets want every man to sit under his own vine and fig  tree — not the vine and fig tree of a collective farm. And the 10th Commandment specifically forbids a Jew to covet anything of his neighbors (as the rabbis observed, it reads “do not covet, covet,” the only one of the Decalogue to use the emphasis of repetition).

That’s the problem: The vulnerability of the conservative model, as de Tocqueville observed in 1835, is that the losers will use their political power to expropriate the winners and vote themselves rich. It is a proud and self-confident people indeed that is composed of individuals willing to accept failure, pick themselves up, and try again, rather than coveting the success of the winners. If popular jealousy erupts against the success of one’s own countrymen, all the more so will it be directed against a minority.

01 Apr 09:49

Francesco Canovai: Automating Barman with Puppet: it2ndq/barman (part two)

In the first part of this article we configured Vagrant to execute two Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr virtual machines, respectively called pg and backup. In this second part we will look at how to use Puppet to set up and configure a PostgreSQL server on pg and back it up via Barman from the backup box.


Puppet: configurationpuppet-barman-part-2-inside

After defining the machines as per the previous article, we need to specify the required Puppet modules that librarian-puppet will manage for us.

Two modules are required:

  1. puppetlabs/postgresql (https://github.com/puppetlabs/puppetlabs-postgresql/) to install PostgreSQL on the pg VM
  2. it2ndq/barman (https://github.com/2ndquadrant-it/puppet-barman) to install Barman on backup

Both modules will be installed from Puppet Forge. For the puppetlabs/postgresql module, we’ll have to use version 4.2.0 at most at the moment, as the latest version (4.3.0) is breaking the postgres_password parameter we’ll be using later (see this pull request). Let’s create a file called Puppetfile containing this content in the project directory:

forge "https://forgeapi.puppetlabs.com"
mod "puppetlabs/postgresql", "<4.3.0"
mod "it2ndq/barman"

We can now install the Puppet modules and their dependencies by running:

$ librarian-puppet install --verbose

Although not essential, it’s preferable to use the option --verbose every time librarian-puppet is used. Without it the command is very quiet and it’s useful to have details about what it’s doing in advance. For example, without using --verbose, you may find out that you’ve wasted precious time waiting for a dependency conflict to be resolved, only to see an error many minutes later.

Upon successful completion of the command, a modules directory containing the barman and postgresql modules and their dependencies (apt, concat, stdlib) will be created in our working directory. In addition, librarian-puppet will create the Puppetfile.lock file to identify dependencies and versions of the installed modules, pinning them to prevent future updates. This way, subsequent librarian-puppet install runs will always install the same version of the modules instead of possible upgrades (in case an upgrade is required, librarian-puppet update will do the trick).

Now we can tell Vagrant we are using a Puppet manifest to provision the servers. We alter the Vagrantfile as follows:

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  {
    :pg => {
      :ip      => '192.168.56.221',
      :box     => 'ubuntu/trusty64'
    },
    :backup => {
      :ip      => '192.168.56.222',
      :box     => 'ubuntu/trusty64'
    }
  }.each do |name,cfg|
    config.vm.define name do |local|
      local.vm.box = cfg[:box]
      local.vm.hostname = name.to_s + '.local.lan'
      local.vm.network :private_network, ip: cfg[:ip]
      family = 'ubuntu'
      bootstrap_url = 'https://raw.github.com/hashicorp/puppet-bootstrap/master/' + family + '.sh'

      # Run puppet-bootstrap only once
      local.vm.provision :shell, :inline => <<-eos
        if [ ! -e /tmp/.bash.provision.done ]; then
          curl -L #{bootstrap_url} | bash
          touch /tmp/.bash.provision.done
        fi
      eos

      # Provision with Puppet
      local.vm.provision :puppet do |puppet|
        puppet.manifests_path = "manifests"
        puppet.module_path = [".", "modules"]
        puppet.manifest_file = "site.pp"
        puppet.options = [
         '--verbose',
        ]
      end
    end
  end
end

With the lines we’ve just added, we’ve given Vagrant the instructions to provision the VMs using manifests/site.pp as the main manifest and the modules included in the modules directory. This is the final version of our Vagrantfile.

We now have to create the manifests directory:

$ mkdir manifests

and write in it a first version of site.pp. We’ll start with a very basic setup:

node backup {
  class { 'barman':
    manage_package_repo => true,
  }
}
node pg {}

We can now start the machines and see that on backup there is a Barman server with a default configuration (and no PostgreSQL on pg yet). Let’s log into backup:

$ vagrant ssh backup

and take a look at /etc/barman.conf:

# Main configuration file for Barman (Backup and Recovery Manager for PostgreSQL)
# Further information on the Barman project at www.pgbarman.org
# IMPORTANT: Please do not edit this file as it is managed by Puppet!
# Global options

[barman]
barman_home = /var/lib/barman
barman_user = barman
log_file = /var/log/barman/barman.log
compression = gzip
backup_options = exclusive_backup
minimum_redundancy = 0
retention_policy =
retention_policy_mode = auto
wal_retention_policy = main
configuration_files_directory = /etc/barman.conf.d

The next step is running a PostgreSQL instance on pg. We must be aware of the parameters required by Barman on the PostgreSQL server, so we need to set:

  • wal_level at least at archive level
  • archive_mode to on
  • archive_command so that the WALs can be copied on backup
  • a rule in pg_hba.conf for access from backup

All of these parameters can be easily set through the puppetlabs/postgresql module. In addition, on the Barman server, we need:

  • a PostgreSQL connection string
  • a .pgpass file for authentication
  • a SSH command
  • to perform the SSH key exchange

it2ndq/barman generates a private/public keypair in ~barman/.ssh. However, automatically exchanging the keys between the servers requires the presence of a Puppet Master which is beyond the objectives of this tutorial (it will be part of the next instalment, which will focus on the setup of a Puppet Master and the barman::autoconfigure class) – therefore this last step will be performed manually.

We edit the site.pp file as follows:

node backup {
  class { 'barman':
    manage_package_repo => true,
  }
  barman::server {'test-server':
    conninfo     => 'user=postgres host=192.168.56.221',
    ssh_command  => 'ssh postgres@192.168.56.221',
  }
  file { '/var/lib/barman/.pgpass':
    ensure  => 'present',
    owner   => 'barman',
    group   => 'barman',
    mode    => 0600,
    content => '192.168.56.221:5432:*:postgres:insecure_password',
  }
}

node pg {
  class { 'postgresql::server':
    listen_addresses     => '*',
    postgres_password    => 'insecure_password',
    pg_hba_conf_defaults => false,
  }
  postgresql::server::pg_hba_rule {'Local access':
    type        => 'local',
    database    => 'all',
    user        => 'all',
    auth_method => 'peer',
  }
  postgresql::server::pg_hba_rule {'Barman access':
    type        => 'host',
    database    => 'all',
    user        => 'postgres',
    address     => '192.168.56.222/32',
    auth_method => 'md5',
  }
  postgresql::server::config_entry {
    'wal_level'       : value => 'archive';
    'archive_mode'    : value => 'on';
    'archive_command' : value => 'rsync -a %p barman@192.168.56.222:/var/lib/barman/test-server/incoming/%f';
  }
  class { 'postgresql::server::contrib':
    package_ensure => 'present',
  }
}

Having changed the manifest, the provision has to be rerun:

$ vagrant provision

With the machines running, we can proceed with the key exchanges. We log into pg:

$ vagrant ssh pg

and we create the keypair for the postgres user, using ssh-keygen, leaving every field empty when prompted (so always pressing enter):

vagrant@pg:~$ sudo -iu postgres
postgres@pg:~$ ssh-keygen
postgres@pg:~$ cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub

The last command outputs a long alphanumeric string that has to be appended to the ~barman/.ssh/authorized_keys file on backup.

$ vagrant ssh backup
vagrant@backup:~$ sudo -iu barman
barman@backup:~$ echo "ssh-rsa ..." >> .ssh/authorized_keys

Similarly, we copy the public key of the barman user into the authorized_keys file of the postgres user on pg:

barman@backup:~$ cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa ...
barman@backup:~$ logout
vagrant@backup:~$ logout
$ vagrant ssh pg
vagrant@pg:~$ sudo -iu postgres
postgres@pg:~$ echo "ssh-rsa ..." >> .ssh/authorized_keys

At this point, we make a first connection in both directions between the two servers:

postgres@pg:$ ssh barman@192.168.56.222
barman@backup:$ ssh postgres@192.168.56.221

We can run barman check to verify that Barman is working correctly:

barman@backup:~$ barman check all
Server test-server:
        ssh: OK
        PostgreSQL: OK
        archive_mode: OK
        archive_command: OK
        directories: OK
        retention policy settings: OK
        backup maximum age: OK (no last_backup_maximum_age provided)
        compression settings: OK
        minimum redundancy requirements: OK (have 0 backups, expected at least 0)

Every line should read “OK”. Now, to perform a backup, simply run:

barman@backup:$ barman backup test-server

A realistic configuration

The Barman configuration used so far is very simple, but you can easily add a few parameters to site.pp and take advantage of all the features of Barman, such as the retention policies and the new incremental backup available in Barman 1.4.0.

We conclude this tutorial with a realistic use case, with the following requirements:

  • a backup every night at 1:00am
  • the possibility of performing a Point In Time Recovery to any moment of the last week
  • always having at least one backup available
  • reporting an error via barman check in case the newest backup is older than a week
  • enabling incremental backup to save disk space

We use the Puppet file resource to create a .pgpass file with the connection parameters and a cron resource to generate the job to run every night. Finally, we edit the barman::server to add the required Barman parameters.

The end result is:

node backup {
  class { 'barman':
    manage_package_repo => true,
  }
  barman::server {'test-server':
    conninfo                => 'user=postgres host=192.168.56.221',
    ssh_command             => 'ssh postgres@192.168.56.221',
    retention_policy        => 'RECOVERY WINDOW OF 1 WEEK',
    minimum_redundancy      => 1,
    last_backup_maximum_age => '1 WEEK',
    reuse_backup            => 'link',
  }
  file { '/var/lib/barman/.pgpass':
    ensure  => 'present',
    owner   => 'barman',
    group   => 'barman',
    mode    => 0600,
    content => '192.168.56.221:5432:*:postgres:insecure_password',
  }
  cron { 'barman backup test-server':
    command => '/usr/bin/barman backup test-server',
    user    => 'barman',
    hour    => 1,
    minute  => 0,
  }
}
node pg {
  class { 'postgresql::server':
    listen_addresses  => '*',
    postgres_password => 'insecure_password',
    pg_hba_conf_defaults => false,
  }
  postgresql::server::pg_hba_rule {'Local access':
    type        => 'local',
    database    => 'all',
    user        => 'all',
    auth_method => 'peer',
  }
  postgresql::server::pg_hba_rule {'Barman access':
    type        => 'host',
    database    => 'all',
    user        => 'postgres',
    address     => '192.168.56.222/32',
    auth_method => 'md5',
  }
  postgresql::server::config_entry {
    'wal_level'       : value => 'archive';
    'archive_mode'    : value => 'on';
    'archive_command' : value => 'rsync -a %p barman@192.168.56.222:/var/lib/barman/test-server/incoming/%f';
  }
}

Conclusion

With 51 lines of Puppet manifest we managed to configure a pair of PostgreSQL/Barman servers with settings similar to those we might want on a production server. We have combined the advantages of having a Barman server to handle backups with those of having an infrastructure managed by Puppet, reusable and versionable.

In the next and final post in this series of articles we will look at how to use a Puppet Master to export resource between different machines, thus allowing the VMs to exchange the parameters required for correct functioning via the barman::autoconfigure class making the whole setup process easier.

31 Mar 17:19

$100 off on the Rokinon 16mm MFT lens.

by 43rumors

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rokinon16mm

For a limited time you get the 16mm Rokinon f/2.0 MFT lens with a $100 discount at eBay US (Click here).

Olympus lens savings:
$100 off on the 12mm f/2.0 lens at Amazon, Adorama, BHphoto and GetOlympus.
$100 off on the 75mm f/1.8 lens at Amazon, Adorama, BHphoto and GetOlympus.
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$50 off on the 14-42mm lens at Amazon, Adorama, BHphoto and GetOlympus.
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$100 off on the 12-40mm lens at Amazon, Adorama, BHphoto and GetOlympus.
$50 off on the 60mm lens at Amazon, Adorama, BHphoto and GetOlympus.

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25 Mar 14:36

LibreOffice Online announced

by corbet
The LibreOffice project has announced the accelerated development of a new online offering. "Development of LibreOffice Online started back in 2011, with the availability of a proof of concept of the client front end, based on HTML5 technology. That proof of concept will be developed into a state of the art cloud application, which will become the free alternative to proprietary solutions such as Google Docs and Office 365, and the first to natively support the Open Document Format (ODF) standard." The current effort is supported by IceWarp and Collabora; see this FAQ and Michael Meeks's posting for more information. For those wanting to download it, though, note the "the availability of LibreOffice Online will be communicated at a later stage."
24 Mar 21:39

Meet Cyanogen, The Startup That Wants To Steal Android From Google (Forbes)

by ris
Forbes takes a look at Cyanogen, and its prospects in the phone market. "Cyanogen has a chance to snag as many as 1 billion handsets, more than the total number of iPhones sold to date, according to some analysts. Fifty million people already run Cyanogen on their phones, the company says. Most went through the hours-long process of erasing an Android phone and rebooting it with Cyanogen. [Kirt] McMaster is now persuading a growing list of phone manufacturers to make devices with Cyanogen built in, rather than Google’s Android. Their phones are selling out in record time. Analysts say each phone could bring Cyanogen a minimum of $10 in revenue and perhaps much more."