A paralysed man is able to walk again thanks to his nasal cavity. Surgeons used cells from Darek Fidyaka to bridge the gap in his spinal cord and promote regrowth.
Fidyka was left unable to walk after being repeatedly stabbed in the back in a 2010 attack that paralyzed him below the chest.
The surgery, carried out by Polish surgeons with the assistance of British scientists, took advantage of the unique nature of the nose. When nerves cells (marked “6” above) in the nose come into contact with molecules carrying odors, they pass the messages on to the olfactory bulb (marked “1”), which is a part of the brain immediately next to the top of the nasal cavities.
Unlike any other part of the nervous system, olfactory nerve cells can be continually replaced by the body after damage. That may have developed because the cells are exposed to the risk of damage, such as from injuries to the nose or toxic fumes. The regenerative ability is why permanent loss of smell is rare, even after major damage to the nose.
Two years ago surgeons removed one of Fidyka’s two olfactory bulbs and used it to grow ensheathing cells, which are what allow the olfactory nerve cells to regrow. They then made around 100 injections of the ensheathing cells above and below the 8mm gap in his spinal cord which had led to the paralysis. Finally they put four strips of nerve tissue across the gap.
It appears that, as hoped, the ensheathing cells encouraged the spinal cord cells to regenerate. They then effectively used the nerve tissue strips as a bridge until the spinal cord cells from both sides of the gap connected with one another and restored the connection across the full length of the spinal cord.
After extensive exercise and rehabilitation, Fidyka can now walk, albeit using a frame. He’s also recovered some sensation in the bladder and bowel.
[Image credit: Patrick J. Lynch via Creative Commons license]
Spoiler alert! Spoiler Alert! Spoiler Alert!
Mas é demais ahahahah
The prequel-sequel that starts the timeline all over again? That sounds kind of familiar…
From Screen Junkies:
You’ve seen us tackle the X-Men Trilogy — now it’s time for us to take on the prequel-sequel that made the worst X-Men movie irrelevant and the worst Wolverine movie into a bad dream: X-Men: Days of Future Past.
by astlock and sstave
When I was about 8 years old, shoveling snow on a freezing day in Colorado, I wished that I could be instantly transported to the surface of the Sun, just for a nanosecond, then instantly transported back. I figured this would be long enough to warm me up but not long enough to harm me. What would actually happen?
AJ, Kansas City
Believe it or not, this wouldn't even warm you.
The temperature of the surface of the Sun is about 5,800 K,Or °C. When temperatures start having many digits in them, it doesn't really matter. give or take. If you stayed there for a while, you'd be cooked to a cinder, but a nanosecond is not very long—it's enough time for light to travel almost exactly a foot.A light-nanosecond is 11.8 inches (0.29981 meters), which is annoyingly close to a foot. I think it would be nice to redefine the foot as exactly 1 light nanosecond. Because we don't have enough unit confusion in the world already.
This raises some obvious questions, like "Do we redefine the mile to keep it at 5,280 feet?" and "Do we redefine the inch?" and "Wait, why are we doing this?" But I figure other people can sort that out. I'm just the idea guy here.
I'm going to assume you're facing toward the Sun. In general, you should avoid looking directly at the Sun, but it's hard to avoid when it takes up a full 180 degrees of your view.
In that nanosecond, about a microjoule of energy would enter your eye.
A microjoule of light is not a lot. If you stare at a computer monitor with your eyes closed, then open them and shut them quickly, your eye will take in about as much light from the screen during your reverse blinkIs there a word for that? There should be a word for that. as it would during a nanosecond on the Sun's surface.
During the nanosecond on the Sun, photons from the Sun would flood into your eye and strike your retinal cells. Then, at the end of the nanosecond, you'd jump back home. At this point, the retinal cells wouldn't even have begun responding. Over the next few million nanoseconds (milliseconds) the retinal cells—having absorbed a bunch of light energy—would get into gear and start signaling your brain that something had happened.
You would spend one nanosecond on the Sun, but it would take 30,000,000 nanoseconds for your brain to notice. From your point of view, all you would see was a flash. The flash would seem to last much longer than your time on the Sun, only fading as your retinal cells quieted down.
The energy absorbed by your skin would be minor—about 10-5 joules per cm2 of exposed skin. For comparison, according to the IEEE P1584 standard (as quoted on ArcAdvisor.com), holding your finger in the blue flame of a butane lighter for one second delivers about 5 joules per cm2 to the skin, which is roughly the threshold for receiving a second-degree burn. The heat during your Sun visit would be five orders of magnitude weaker. Other than the dim flash in your eyes, you wouldn't even notice.
But what if you got the coordinates wrong?
The Sun's surface is relatively cool. It's hotter than, like, Phoenix, but compared to the interior, it's downright chilly. The surface is a few thousand degrees, but the interior is a few million degrees.The corona, the thin gas high above the surface, is also several million degrees, and no one knows why. What if you spent a nanosecond there?
The Stefan-Boltzmann law lets us calculate how much heat you'd be exposed to while inside the Sun.There's also direct pressure from the heavy particles, protons and stuff, bouncing around, but the radiation turns out to be the dominant component.
I'm going to hijack this note to ask another question: How does this transporter work, anyway?
When you teleport somewhere, presumably it does gets rid of the matter that was in the way, so you don't end up combining yourself with whatever was there. A simple solution is to have the teleporters swap matter between the two locations. Kirk gets teleported down to the planet, a Kirk-sized chunk of air gets teleported up to the Enterprise.
So what would happen if an AJ-shaped chunk of Sun-interior gets teleported to snowy Colorado, then we just left it there?
The protons inside the Sun bounce around at speeds of about 350 km/s (about half of the Sun's escape velocity at that depth, for weird and deep reasons.) Freed from their crushingly hot neighborhood, the whole collection of protons would burst outward, pouring light and heat energy into their surroundings. The energy released would be somewhere between a large bomb and a small nuclear weapon. It's not good. You would exceed the IEEE P1584B standard for second-degree burns after one femtosecond in the Sun.Although it wouldn't be a second-degree burn until many picoseconds later, since the definition of a second-degree burn is one which damages some of the underlying layers of tissue—and in the first few femtoseconds, light wouldn't have time to reach the underlying tissue. A nanosecond—the time you're spending there—is 1,000,000 femtoseconds. This does not end well for you.
There's some good news: Deep in the Sun, the photons carrying energy around have very short wavelengths—they're mostly a mix of what we'd consider hard and soft X-rays.<what_if_book_reference>I wonder if there are more soft or hard x-ray photons in the universe.</what_if_book_reference> This means they penetrate your body to various depths, heating your internal organs and also ionizing your DNA, causing irreversible damage before they even start burning you. Looking back, I notice that I started this paragraph with "there's some good news." I don't know why I did that.
In Greek legend, Icarus flew too close to the Sun, and the heat melted his wings and he fell to his death. But "melting" is a phase change which is a function of temperature, a measure of internal energy, which is the integral of incident power flux over time. His wings didn't melt because he flew too close to the Sun, they melted because he spent too much time there.
Visit briefly, in little hops, and you can go anywhere.
Here are 10 interesting and little-known facts about Super Mario Bros 3 for the Nes as compiled by Redditor TestZero. If you’re reading this from the front page, I’ve included the 9 other facts after the “read more” link below.
ahahahahaha o outro lado da história :D
An anonymous e-mailer threatened to blow up a bomb at the Game Developers Choice Awards this past March unless the hosts rescinded an award recognizing feminist critic Anita Sarkeesian, the organizers of the event have confirmed to Kotaku.
by Julik and Aaron
Sigh… life is such a simple thing when you’re a cat… or a dog! :)
[Source: Pie Comic by John McNamee]
Here’s an extremely simple test to verify if your alkaline batteries are still good: just drop them from a low height on a hard surface: The good batteries will stay down while the bad ones will bounce like a man on a pogo stick. Please note that this test will also work for AA, AAA, C, D and 9 Volt alkaline batteries.
A non-rechargeable alkaline battery begins life using zinc powder mixed into a gel containing a potassium hydroxide electrolyte separated from a paste of manganese dioxide powder mixed with carbon powder using a porous membrane. To minimize hydrogen outgassing an extra measure of manganese dioxide is added. As the battery discharges manganese dioxide powder changes to manganese oxide causing the powdered granules to bond both chemically and physically. This packed-sand consistency reduces the antibounce effect exhibited by the gel mixture when the battery was fully charged.
[Source: Happy Jar]
50 game cartridges dating back from the past 40 years. Can you identify them all? :)
Illustration by Medford, OR-based Artist John Moore.
This is a tribute to the gaming cartridge (and close cousins).
There are 50 carts total all in order of when they hit the market,
from the Odyssey in 1972, to the Playstation Vita in 2011.
I wanted to display these cartridges as simply as possible, with colors seperating key details like seams and lables.
Um verdadeiro coffee lover adora saber os detalhes da preparação da sua bebida favorita – como as características da água, do pó e da própria extração. E nem sempre conseguimos tudo isso usando uma simples cafeteira elétrica, não é mesmo? Por isso achamos superinteressante a invenção da Presisjon, da fabricante norueguesa Svart, criada em parceria com o famoso barista Tim Wendelboe.
A quantidade e a temperatura da água podem ser facilmente controladas, já que o reservatório possui escalas para que o usuário faça a melhor relação entre o volume do líquido e o pó – sem comprometer o sabor da bebida. Já a temperatura, segundo o fabricante, é a mesma do primeiro ao último pingo de café – a exatos 85ºC.
O filtro chama a atenção de modo especial. Isso porque ele possui um regulador que garante a quantidade exata da bebida que a máquina vai liberar. Assim, é possível ter autonomia sobre a extração em diferentes doses, que vão de mais de 1 litro a apenas 250 ml.
Outro diferencial é que você não precisa utilizar obrigatoriamente o filtro do fabricante. Você pode, por exemplo, substituí-lo por uma Chemex e utilizar o distribuidor de água da Presisjon, Hario ou outros.
O método já nos conquistou. Torcemos para que chegue logo ao Brasil. Enquanto isso, só nos resta assistir ao vídeo e apreciar de longe o produto:
Por: Lucas Tavares