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25 Oct 20:00

thisiswander: Chelsea MunroNew ZealandCanon EOS 650D What keeps...

















thisiswander:

Chelsea Munro
New Zealand
Canon EOS 650D

What keeps you motivated to capture such beautiful moments of life and travel to the places you have been, as evident in your portfolio?

My biggest inspirations/motivations are the nature Im surrounded by and the people I meet through my travels, I’m lucky enough to live in New Zealand which has a huge variety of landscapes and you can find beautiful surf beaches or rugged mountain ranges spread throughout the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The moment I really got into photography was a trip to Haast in the South Island and I took a helicopter ride over the back country into the mountains and to be able to capture those waterfalls, rivers and valleys and share them with people and show them the real New Zealand that not many people have seen was to me a privilege and the photos from there are still some of my favourite I’ve taken.

Although I’ve always wanted to travel the world, and have recently travelled to Vietnam for 3 weeks which was such a beautiful country with the warmest people I’ve met, and was an amazing place to take portraits and explore a new place with a new culture. As I get older I hope to travel more and continue to document my adventures through my photos.

Tumblr: @chelseamunro
Instagram: @chels_munro
Facebook: @ChelseaMunroPhotography

SUBMIT TO WANDER

26 Oct 23:06

Três pontos sobre as eleições

by brandizzi

Acredito que Aécio seria um presidente melhor, mas as urnas foram claras. Parabéns a Dilma e seus eleitores.

A melhor notícia foi o ótimo desempenho do PSDB. A campanha de Aécio foi excelente, as propostas ótimas. Aécio mostrou-se muito melhor que as alternativas anteriores e afastou-se dos que pregavam ódio. É dessa oposição que precisamos.

O sufoco do PT foi um aviso. O povo confia em Dilma, mas está muito descontente.Se Dilma ouvir o recado mandado via o sufoco, poderá fazer um governo melhor agora. Que assim seja.

27 Oct 13:20

Críticos gastronômicos provam McDonald's sem saber e aprovam comida

Todo mundo sabe que comida orgânica é muito mais saudável e gostosa que McDonald's. Certo?

Mais ou menos... Os apresentadores do canal do YouTube Life Hunters foram a uma feira de amantes de comida que acontece todo ano na Holanda. Eles ofereceram a alguns participantes e críticos gastronômicos uma "nova alternativa orgânica ao fast food" para experimentar.

Até aí, tudo dentro do previsto. Só que a tal "nova alternativa" era o bom e velho cardápio cheio de sódio e gordura trans do McDonalds apresentado sob a forma de delicados canapés.

"É delicioso!", disse um. "Fresquinho", disse outro. "Muito saboroso".

"Muito bom. A estrutura é boa. Isso, não muito grudenta", arrematou outro. "Ele rola na língua muito bem, se fosse vinho diria que é um vinho fino."

A uma das pessoas que provaram, eles perguntaram: "Se você tivesse de comparar isso com a comida do McDonald's, qual seria a maior diferença?". Ela respondeu: "Definitivamente o sabor é muito melhor, e o fato de ser orgânico é definitivamente uma coisa ótima."

Moral da história: a apresentação é a alma do negócio.

Bookmarked at brandizzi Delicious' sharing tag and expanded by Delicious sharing tag expander.
27 Oct 17:16

Lugar mais frio do universo é enigma para astrônomos

Nebulosa de Bumerangue é uma das descobertas mais singulares da astronomia

O espaço é um lugar muito frio. A temperatura certa no vácuo e longe de qualquer astro é de cerca de -270 graus C.

Essa temperatura seria suficiente para congelar o hidrogênio na Terra - mas ainda está alguns poucos graus acima do que é considerado o "zero absoluto" - o ponto mais frio possível.

O motivo pelo qual a temperatura ainda se mantém acima deste ponto de zero absoluto é a constante presença de algo chamado radiação cósmica de fundo em micro-ondas, uma energia originada no "Big Bang" e que preenche todo o cosmo.

Por isso, em quase todo o universo, -270 é a temperatura mais baixa possível.

Mas não em todo ele.

Morte de estrelas é fenômeno comum no universo

A Nebulosa de Bumerangue fica a 5 mil anos-luz da constelação de Centaurus. Lá, uma nuvem de gás está sendo expelida por uma estrela que está morrendo.

Esta nuvem é um dos objetos mais misteriosos do universo. Os astrônomos acreditam que a temperatura cai para algo apenas meio grau acima do zero absoluto. Até onde sabemos, este é o ponto mais frio do universo.

Justamente por isso, muitos astrônomos se debruçam sobre esse tema. Alguns acreditam que ele pode ajudar a explicar várias dúvidas - como sobre a formação de galáxias e explosões cósmicas.

Morte das estrelas, nascimento da vida

A morte de estrelas é um fenômeno comum no universo. Daqui a alguns anos, o nosso Sol também vai esgotar seu combustível nuclear, se esfriar e expandir - ao ponto de absorver Mercúrio, Vênus e talvez até mesmo a Terra.

Após uma série de processos, o Sol vai virar uma anã-branca, diminuindo até atingir aproximadamente o tamanho da Terra.

A morte das estrelas tem um papel fundamental no surgimento da vida. Astrônomos já sabem há bastante tempo que elementos como carbono, oxigênio e ferro são fundidos dentro do núcleo das estrelas. Quando elas morrem, esses elementos são distribuídos pela galáxia.

Essa distribuição de elementos - sobretudo da morte de estrelas muito maiores do que o Sol - é que ajuda a formar rochas, planetas e até mesmo a vida.

Nebulosa especial

O processo acontece em vários lugares do universo. Mas a Nebulosa de Bumerangue é especial. Cientistas estão conseguindo observá-la em fase anterior ao de se tornar uma "nebulosa planetária" - que é um dos estágios da morte das estrelas.

Os astrônomos Raghvendra Sahai, da Nasa, e Lars-Ake Nyman, do telescópio ALMA, no Chile, descobriram que o gás que é liberado pela nebulosa flui a uma velocidade de 164 quilômetros por segundo - dez vezes maior do que o normal observado até hoje - e 4 mil vezes mais rápida que um trem-bala.

Essa velocidade de liberação de energia explica porque a Nebulosa de Bumerangue é tão fria.

A velocidade de liberação é tão alta que fica difícil até mesmo para a radiação cósmica de fundo de microondas conseguir esquentar um pouco o ambiente. Com a exceção de algumas condições criadas especialmente em laboratórios na Terra, não existe nenhum lugar mais frio em todo o universo.

Por que a Bumerangue libera gás tão rápido? Cientistas não entendem ainda

Sahai já havia teorizado sobre essa possibilidade antes mesmo da descoberta empírica. Ao analisar osdados da Bumerangue, ele descobriu que suas previsões feitas há 20 anos estavam se materializando.

"Fiquei todo arrepiado. Foi um dos momentos mais emocionantes da minha carreira", conta.

Mas mesmo observado o fenômeno, os astronomos ainda não sabem explicá-lo.

O que ninguém consegue explicar é o porquê da velocidade extrema de 164 quilômetros por segundo. A estrela dentro da Bumerangue não é brilhante o suficiente para produzir esta quantidade de energia.

Pontos azul mostram lugares mais frios da Nebulosa de Bumerangue

Muitos outros mistérios persistem.

Sahai e seus colegas ainda vão realizar novas observações ainda este ano. Em algumas regiões, o gás expelido flui a 35 quilometros por segundo. Os astrônomos querem mapear em detalhes por que o gás flui a velocidades diferentes em pontos distintos.

"Esses objetos não são apenas bonitos. Eles são cheios de segredos", diz Soker.

Leia a versão original desta reportagem em inglês no site BBC Earth.

Bookmarked at brandizzi Delicious' sharing tag and expanded by Delicious sharing tag expander.
26 Oct 18:27

Eleitores da fronteira com o Uruguai votam duas vezes para presidente

FELIPE BÄCHTOLD, DE PORTO ALEGRE

Em algumas cidades do Rio Grande do Sul, o domingo de eleição tem uma importância histórica ainda maior. Em uma coincidência inédita, os eleitores do vizinho Uruguai escolhem presidente no mesmo dia do Brasil.

Com a integração da fronteira, muitos eleitores de dupla cidadania votam nos dois países hoje.

Seis municípios gaúchos são colados a cidades uruguaias e possuem população com laços estreitos com os dois lados. O maior desses municípios é Santana do Livramento (a 487 km de Porto Alegre), com 83 mil habitantes.

A localidade gaúcha é separada por uma rua da uruguaia Rivera, de 65 mil habitantes. Moradores cruzam a fronteira várias vezes por dia e muitas famílias são formadas por cidadãos brasileiros e uruguaios. Há até um apelido para quem tem dupla cidadania: “doble chapa”.

O Uruguai realiza neste domingo o primeiro turno da sucessão do presidente José Mujica. A disputa está polarizada entre o governista Tabaré Vásquez, ex-presidente, e Luis Lacalle Pou, do Partido Blanco.

Morador de Santana do Livramento, Horácio Dávila, 64, votou no Brasil hoje, pela manhã, e no Uruguai, à tarde. Ele diz que o dia da eleição é “mais alegre e mais participativo” no Uruguai porque não há proibição de propaganda de boca de urna, como no lado brasileiro.

Morador de Santana do Livramento, Horácio Dávila, 64, votou no Brasil pela manhã e no Uruguai à tarde - Divulgação

Morador de Santana do Livramento, Horácio Dávila, 64, votou no Brasil pela manhã e no Uruguai à tarde – Divulgação

“Fica muito engessado. Se você fica na calçada, a polícia passa e pergunta o que está fazendo”, diz.

Diretor de um órgão municipal e dirigente do PT no município gaúcho, Dávila nasceu em Montevidéu, mas mora no lado brasileiro da fronteira desde os anos 70 e obteve a cidadania. Não se recorda de outra situação similar a deste domingo.

“Casualmente, coincidiu o dia, e a fronteira está bem movimentada. Quando apurarem os resultados, ficará mais festiva ainda.”

Para ele, a fronteira “não existe” em Santana do Livramento e é apenas uma separação de “bairros”.

Fronteira Brasil-Uruguai nas cidades de Quaraí (RS) e Artigas (URU) -Felipe Bächtold/Folhapress

Fronteira Brasil-Uruguai nas cidades de Quaraí (RS) e Artigas (URU) -Felipe Bächtold/Folhapress

No Uruguai, a votação se dá em cédulas de papel, e a disputa pode ser definida apenas daqui a um mês, no segundo turno.

O total do eleitorado do país vizinho é de 2,6 milhões –o equivalente ao da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre.

Siga o blog Brasil no Twitter (@Folha_Brasil) e no Facebook (www.facebook.com/BlogBrasil)

 

27 Oct 08:13

Imagination Running Wild

by DOGHOUSE DIARIES

Imagination Running Wild

He's gotten really good at making sound effects.

22 Oct 18:57

bestrooftalkever: Two Waterfalls That Literally Can’t Even

10 Oct 15:17

adriofthedead: morganperreault: the only way I’ll wake up...



adriofthedead:

morganperreault:

the only way I’ll wake up early

japanese prank shows are on a whole other level

25 Oct 19:30

[camperjohn64]

26 Oct 12:17

Até acampamento de sem-terra vê disputa entre petistas e tucanos

ESTELITA HASS CARAZZAI, EM CAMPO GRANDE (MS)

Na estrada que segue ao sul de Campo Grande, em direção à agrícola cidade de Sidrolândia, há fazendas e mais fazendas, além de alguns acampamentos de sem-terra.

De um lado, entre os barracos de lona e madeira, uma bandeira com o número 45 balança pendurada num pedaço de bambu. Do outro, a bandeira vermelha do 13, numa disputa eleitoral que avança até sobre acampados e movimentos de trabalhadores rurais.

Mato Grosso do Sul vive um disputado segundo turno na corrida ao governo, entre Delcídio Amaral (PT) e Reinaldo Azambuja (PSDB). Os dois estão em empate técnico, segundo as últimas pesquisas.

PT e PSDB nos sem-terra

“Aqui nós fechamos com o Reinaldo”, diz o acampado Osvaldo Aoki, 57, sobre a bandeira azul e amarela em frente a um dos acampamentos, a cerca de 30 km de Campo Grande.

O “nós”, nesse caso, são os líderes do movimento, ligado à Fetagri (Federação de Trabalhadores na Agricultura) –que, por sua vez, declarou apoio oficial ao petista Delcídio. Outros dois acampamentos próximos também exibiam a bandeira do PSDB, numa visita feita pela Folha neste sábado (25).

O apoio só veio no segundo turno. Deputados e representantes do tucano foram ao local, conversaram com os líderes e prometeram diálogo em caso de eleição.

“O Reinaldo, se for eleito, disse que quem vai nomear a comissão para negociação [de desapropriações e reforma agrária] são os líderes”, conta Aoki.

Em outros dois acampamentos vizinhos, é o PT de Delcídio quem tem o monopólio das bandeiras, seguindo a orientação da Fetagri.

“Por tudo o que ele já fez pelo nosso Estado e pelas propostas que apresenta para fortalecer a agricultura familiar, não temos dúvida de que ele é a melhor opção”, discursou o presidente da Fetagri, Valdinir Nobre de Oliveira, durante ato de apoio ao petista, ainda no primeiro turno.

COISA DE LÍDER

Mesmo no “acampamento tucano”, o apoio não é unanimidade.

“Quem está apoiando é o líder. Mas nós já temos candidato: é do PT”, diz a acampada Neuza Medeiros, 53, que tem uma bandeira de Delcídio guardada em casa. Segundo ela, “a maioria” ali vota 13.

“Até o primeiro turno, era tudo PT. Acho que tem dinheiro na jogada”, diz.

Neuza não soube explicar como os líderes estariam recebendo (se como contratados na campanha ou não, se com ajuda na gasolina ou dinheiro vivo). O líder do acampamento não estava no local.

Para Aoki, cuja caminhonete está forrada de adesivos de Azambuja e do presidenciável Aécio Neves, o candidato tucano é o único que fala de reforma agrária. “Veja a Dilma. Quantos anos faz que está lá e nunca falou nisso?”

O fato de Azambuja ser fazendeiro (um dos mais ricos candidatos do país, com patrimônio declarado de R$ 37 milhões) não é demérito, para o acampado. Ele opina que o tucano irá negociar melhor com os proprietários e terá mais facilidade de criar nossos assentamentos.

Neuza discorda. “O único governador que deu terra foi o Zeca do PT [1999-2006]. Depois, acabou. Por isso que eu voto no PT.”

Mato Grosso do Sul tem cerca de 22 mil acampados, que aguardam por terras da reforma agrária, de acordo com um levantamento do início deste ano do Incra (Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária).

Siga o blog Brasil no Twitter (@Folha_Brasil) e no Facebook (www.facebook.com/BlogBrasil)

 

25 Oct 16:00

iraffiruse: Frozach Submitted

24 Oct 17:05

The End Of Gamer Culture?

by Andrew Sullivan

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Many readers have warned me not to dip a toe into the gamergate debate, which, so far, we’ve been covering through aggregation and reader-input. And I’m not going to dive headlong into an extremely complex series of events, which have generated huge amounts of intense emotion on all sides, in a gamer culture which Dish readers know far, far better than I. But part of my job is to write and think about burning current web discussions – and add maybe two cents, even as an outsider.

So let me make a few limited points. The tactics of harassment, threats of violence, foul misogyny, and stalking have absolutely no legitimate place in any discourse. Having read about what has happened to several women, who have merely dared to exercise their First Amendment rights, I can only say it’s been one of those rare stories that still has the capacity to shock me. I know it isn’t fair to tarnish an entire tendency with this kind of extremism, but the fact that this tactic seemed to be the first thing that some gamergate advocates deployed should send off some red flashing lights as to the culture it is defending.

Second, there’s a missing piece of logic, so far as I have managed to discern, in the gamergate campaign. The argument seems to be that some feminists are attempting to police or control a hyper-male culture of violence, speed, competition and boobage. And in so far as that might be the case, my sympathies do indeed lie with the gamers. The creeping misandry in a lot of current debates – see “Affirmative Consent” and “Check Your Privilege” – and the easy prejudices that define white and male and young as suspect identities (because sexism!) rightly offend many men (and women).

There’s an atmosphere in which it has somehow become problematic to have a classic white, straight male identity, and a lot that goes with it. I’m not really a part of that general culture – indifferent to boobage, as I am, and bored by violence. But I don’t see why it cannot have a place in the world. I believe in the flourishing of all sorts of cultures and subcultures and have long been repulsed by the nannies and busybodies who want to police them – whether from the social right or the feminist left.

But – and here’s where the logic escapes me – if the core gamers really do dominate the market for these games, why do they think the market will stop catering to them? The great (and not-so-great) thing about markets is that they are indifferent to content as such. If “hardcore gamers” skew 7 -1 male, and if corporations want to make lots of money, then this strain of the culture is hardly under threat. It may be supplemented by lots of other, newer varieties, but it won’t die. Will it be diluted? Almost certainly. Does that feel like an assault for a group of people whose identity is deeply bound up in this culture? Absolutely. Is it something anyone should really do anything about? Nah. Let a thousand variety of nerds and post-nerds bloom. And leave Kenny McCormick alone. This doesn’t have to be zero-sum.

The analogy a reader made this morning between the end of gamer culture and the end of gay culture was really helpful to me. I’ve written and blogged a lot about the end of gay culture; and I’ve always tried to present both sides of the argument. Yes, I wouldn’t trade our freedom for the closeted, marginalized past; at the same time, it’s impossible not to feel some regret at the close-knit, marginalized, very distinctive solidarity gays have lost as a group, and some affection for a world, built defiantly to defend itself against outsiders, that is dissipating before our eyes and on our apps. I’m for integration and against identity politics. But do I miss what, say, leather bars once were – and feel very conflicted now that bachelorette parties come and go as they please in some of them? Do I harbor some traces of resentment at those who treat gay culture as some kind of straight playground, or at the mob of straight folks who will swamp any gay presence at next week’s once-very gay high heel race in Dupont Circle? Guilty as charged.

And look, many gamers were the bullied in high school; this was their safe space; it was a place they could call home. They now feel it slipping away, and it has unhinged some and disconcerted many, as a lot of mainstream culture has heaped scorn and ridicule on them at the same time. And I’m sorry, but I feel some sympathy here. That sympathy has, alas, been swamped by revulsion at the rhetoric and tactics that have come to define this amorphous movement. I haven’t, to continue the analogy, gone stalking bachelorettes or yelling obscenities at them. I just sigh and move on. But these people do have a point; they have long been ostracized and marginalized; their defensiveness exists for a reason; and, in the last couple of months, they have also been the target of truly out-there dismissals and vitriolic abuse – often from other men, and often from those who were not bullied in high school at all.

Am I wrong to detect in this pile-on another round of bullying of these people, of treating them as scum, of dismissing anything they might have to say? Here are Gawker’s Sam Biddle’s tweets last week:

Ultimately #GamerGate is reaffirming what we’ve known to be true for decades: nerds should be constantly shamed and degraded into submission

— Sam Biddle (@samfbiddle) October 16, 2014

Just to make sure his point wasn’t lost, he then facetiously tweeted:

Bring Back Bullying — Sam Biddle (@samfbiddle) October 16, 2014

This was meant ironically, of course – a debating flourish. But the joke only works when you’re re-visiting those high school wars, only to dismiss the losers of them. It was a piece of condescending ridicule, designed to rub the losers’ faces in their own demise, from a prominent perch. Biddle is not alone. Here’s a now-infamous piece by Leigh Alexander:

‘Game culture’ as we know it is kind of embarrassing — it’s not even culture. It’s buying things, spackling over memes and in-jokes repeatedly, and it’s getting mad on the internet.

It’s young men queuing with plush mushroom hats and backpacks and jutting promo poster rolls. Queuing passionately for hours, at events around the world, to see the things that marketers want them to see. To find out whether they should buy things or not. They don’t know how to dress or behave… “Gamer” isn’t just a dated demographic label that most people increasingly prefer not to use. Gamers are over. That’s why they’re so mad.

These obtuse shitslingers, these wailing hyper-consumers, these childish internet-arguers — they are not my audience. They don’t have to be yours. There is no ‘side’ to be on, there is no ‘debate’ to be had.

This last meme – that these people are not even worthy of a hearing – is pretty endemic among the college-educated cool kids running online media operations. Here’s one Kyle Wagner:

What’s made [gamergate] effective, though, is that it’s exploited the same basic loophole in the system that generations of social reactionaries have: the press’s genuine and deep-seated belief that you gotta hear both sides…. Tomorrow’s Lee Atwater will work through sock puppets on IRC. Tomorrow’s Sister Souljah will get shouted down with rape threats. Tomorrow’s Tipper Gore will make an inexplicably popular YouTube video. Tomorrow’s Willie Horton ad will be an image macro, tomorrow’s Borking a doxing, tomorrow’s Moral Majority a loose coalition of DoSers and robo-petitioners and scat-GIF trolls—all of them working feverishly in service of the old idea that nothing should ever really change.

This is Deadspin’s spin on this. It’s pure vitriol, resting on an unspoken, hard left view of culture that is more disturbing because it presents itself as snark and analysis, rather than tired, easy agit-prop. It’s a classic piece that asks all the cool kids today to smear and dismiss all the bullied of yesterday – and give them one last shove into the locker. Gawker’s Joel Johnson actually cites the piece thus:

Gawker Media has been covering the often-confounding phenomenon of Gamergate in detail, and will keep on covering it.

That piece was not so much “covering the phenomenon” as viciously skewing it. And yes, its tone smacked of bullying and dismissal. When you’re telling people they don’t even deserve to be in a debate, and associate them with segregationists and every other entity good liberals have been taught to despise, “dismissive” is the least of it.

Look: whatever case the gamergate peeps have, they have botched it with their tactics. Those tactics have been repellent in every sense of the word. But bullying has occurred on both sides, and only one side was bullied before.

From my update, regarding that last sentence:

The two sides I am describing are the journalists whose work I was just criticizing and the gamergate supporters. Not the whole two sides of gamer culture; not men and women; just the journalists I’ve been citing, and the people they’ve been lambasting.


23 Oct 20:00

rispostesenzadomanda: How to catch a cat









rispostesenzadomanda:

How to catch a cat

24 Oct 16:00

catallenas: kuueater: doitsundere: lionessjenna: doitsundere: sure little guy nO

24 Oct 10:00

catastrofe: braking bad



catastrofe:

braking bad

24 Oct 02:25

Someone get Conan some aloe. [@conanobrien/@madeleine]









Someone get Conan some aloe. [@conanobrien/@madeleine]

24 Oct 06:40

[extrafabulouscomics]

24 Oct 20:00

nevver: Marc Chagall in Milan

24 Oct 15:41

Mmm. Autobiographical.

by punchthemoon


Mmm. Autobiographical.

23 Oct 07:01

Afraid

by Doug

Afraid

I love spiders. Oh wait no they’re the worst creatures on earth.

23 Oct 16:00

People will stare. Make it worth their while → Krikor Jabotian...





People will stare. Make it worth their while → Krikor Jabotian Haute Couture | S/S ‘11

23 Oct 13:20

Movie laser guns have nothing on the real thing

by Steve Dent
Ray guns are high on the list of "physics gone wrong" movie tropes. Unlike the real thing, the blasts are much slower than light, visible in clear air and (depending on who's firing) highly inaccurate. However, laser physicists in Poland have just...
23 Oct 03:00

Mark Zuckerberg does a public Q&A session — in Mandarin Chinese

by Mark Sullivan
Mark Zuckerberg does a public Q&A session — in Mandarin Chinese

Mark Zuckerberg did a public Q&A session today — in Mandarin Chinese. Yes, the Facebook CEO set out to learn the (very difficult) language in 2010, in his spare time.

“On Wednesday I did my first ever public Q&A in Chinese at Tsinghua University in Beijing!” Zuckerberg wrote on Facebook after the event. “We discussed connecting the world, Internet.org, innovation, and the early days of Facebook.”

Zuckerberg barely uttered a single word in English — just one quick “I’m sorry,” when he misspoke.

After the CEO gave a short answer to the first question, loud applause, laughter, and a couple of gasps could be heard from the audience.

He made convincing inflections. He made jokes. He seemed totally relaxed.

Here’s the first part of the Q&A:

You can find the full video here.


VentureBeat is studying mobile marketing automation. Chime in, and we’ll share the data.


Facebook is the world’s largest social network, with over 1.15 billion monthly active users. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg in February 2004, initially as an exclusive network for Harvard students. It was a huge hit: in 2 w... read more »








23 Oct 15:40

The Laborers Who Keep Dick Pics and Beheadings Out of Your Facebook Feed | WIRED

A contractor at the Manila office of TaskUs, a firm that provides content moderation services to U.S. tech companies. Moises Saman/Magnum

The campuses of the tech industry are famous for their lavish cafeterias, cushy shuttles, and on-site laundry services. But on a muggy February afternoon, some of these companies’ most important work is being done 7,000 miles away, on the second floor of a former elementary school at the end of a row of auto mechanics’ stalls in Bacoor, a gritty Filipino town 13 miles southwest of Manila. When I climb the building’s narrow stairwell, I need to press against the wall to slide by workers heading down for a smoke break. Up one flight, a drowsy security guard staffs what passes for a front desk: a wooden table in a dark hallway overflowing with file folders.

Past the guard, in a large room packed with workers manning PCs on long tables, I meet Michael Baybayan, an enthusiastic 21-year-old with a jaunty pouf of reddish-brown hair. If the space does not resemble a typical startup’s office, the image on Baybayan’s screen does not resemble typical startup work: It appears to show a super-close-up photo of a two-pronged dildo wedged in a vagina. I say appears because I can barely begin to make sense of the image, a baseball-card-sized abstraction of flesh and translucent pink plastic, before he disappears it with a casual flick of his mouse.

Baybayan is part of a massive labor force that handles “content moderation”—the removal of offensive material—for US social-networking sites. As social media connects more people more intimately than ever before, companies have been confronted with the Grandma Problem: Now that grandparents routinely use services like Facebook to connect with their kids and grandkids, they are potentially exposed to the Internet’s panoply of jerks, racists, creeps, criminals, and bullies. They won’t continue to log on if they find their family photos sandwiched between a gruesome Russian highway accident and a hardcore porn video. Social media’s growth into a multibillion-dollar industry, and its lasting mainstream appeal, has depended in large part on companies’ ability to police the borders of their user-generated content—to ensure that Grandma never has to see images like the one Baybayan just nuked.

A contractor at the Manila office of TaskUs, a firm that provides content moderation services to U.S. tech companies. Moises Saman/Magnum

“EVERYBODY HITS THE WALL. YOU JUST THINK, ‘HOLY SHIT, WHAT AM I SPENDING MY DAY DOING?’”

So companies like Facebook and Twitter rely on an army of workers employed to soak up the worst of humanity in order to protect the rest of us. And there are legions of them—a vast, invisible pool of human labor. Hemanshu Nigam, the former chief security officer of MySpace who now runs online safety consultancy SSP Blue, estimates that the number of content moderators scrubbing the world’s social media sites, mobile apps, and cloud storage services runs to “well over 100,000”—that is, about twice the total head count of Google and nearly 14 times that of Facebook.

This work is increasingly done in the Philippines. A former US colony, the Philippines has maintained close cultural ties to the United States, which content moderation companies say helps Filipinos determine what Americans find offensive. And moderators in the Philippines can be hired for a fraction of American wages. Ryan Cardeno, a former contractor for Microsoft in the Philippines, told me that he made $500 per month by the end of his three-and-a-half-year tenure with outsourcing firm Sykes. Last year, Cardeno was offered $312 per month by another firm to moderate content for Facebook, paltry even by industry standards.

Here in the former elementary school, Baybayan and his coworkers are screening content for Whisper, an LA-based mobile startup—recently valued at $200 million by its VCs—that lets users post photos and share secrets anonymously. They work for a US-based outsourcing firm called TaskUs. It’s something of a surprise that Whisper would let a reporter in to see this process. When I asked Microsoft, Google, and Facebook for information about how they moderate their services, they offered vague statements about protecting users but declined to discuss specifics. Many tech companies make their moderators sign strict nondisclosure agreements, barring them from talking even to other employees of the same outsourcing firm about their work.

“I think if there’s not an explicit campaign to hide it, there’s certainly a tacit one,” says Sarah Roberts, a media studies scholar at the University of Western Ontario and one of the few academics who study commercial content moderation. Companies would prefer not to acknowledge the hands-on effort required to curate our social media experiences, Roberts says. “It goes to our misunderstandings about the Internet and our view of technology as being somehow magically not human.”

The road leading to The former office of TaskUs in Bacoor, a Manila Suburb. Moises Saman/Magnum

The road leading to The former office of TaskUs in Bacoor, a Manila Suburb.

Moises Saman/Magnum

A suicidal message posted by a whisper user and flagged for deletion by a TaskUs employee. Moises Saman/Magnum

A suicidal message posted by a whisper user and flagged for deletion by a TaskUs employee.

Moises Saman/Magnum

TaskUs contractors review content on their computers at their office in the Taguig district of Manila, on August 28, 2014. Moises Saman/Magnum

TaskUs contractors review content on their computers at their office in the Taguig district of Manila, on August 28, 2014.

Moises Saman/Magnum

Employees of Open Access BPO review content at the company's offices in Manila, on August 28, 2014. Moises Saman/Magnum

Employees of Open Access BPO review content at the company's offices in Manila, on August 28, 2014.

Moises Saman/Magnum

An Open Access BPO employee stares at his two computer screens as another employee takes a lunch break, on August 28, 2014. The office was undergoing renovations to accommodate an expansion. Moises Saman/Magnum

An Open Access BPO employee stares at his two computer screens as another employee takes a lunch break, on August 28, 2014. The office was undergoing renovations to accommodate an expansion.

Moises Saman/Magnum

Several content moderation companies have their Manila offices on Ayala Avenue, in the main business district. Moises Saman/Magnum

Several content moderation companies have their Manila offices on Ayala Avenue, in the main business district.

Moises Saman/Magnum

I was given a look at the Whisper moderation process because Michael Heyward, Whisper’s CEO, sees moderation as an integral feature and a key selling point of his app. Whisper practices “active moderation,” an especially labor-intensive process in which every single post is screened in real time; many other companies moderate content only if it’s been flagged as objectionable by users, which is known as reactive moderating. “The type of space we’re trying to create with anonymity is one where we’re asking users to put themselves out there and feel vulnerable,” he tells me. “Once the toothpaste is out of the tube, it’s tough to put it back in.”

Watching Baybayan’s work makes terrifyingly clear the amount of labor that goes into keeping Whisper’s toothpaste in the tube. (After my visit, Baybayan left his job and the Bacoor office of TaskUs was raided by the Philippine version of the FBI for allegedly using pirated software on its computers. The company has since moved its content moderation operations to a new facility in Manila.) He begins with a grid of posts, each of which is a rectangular photo, many with bold text overlays—the same rough format as old-school Internet memes. In its freewheeling anonymity, Whisper functions for its users as a sort of externalized id, an outlet for confessions, rants, and secret desires that might be too sensitive (or too boring) for Facebook or Twitter. Moderators here view a raw feed of Whisper posts in real time. Shorn from context, the posts read like the collected tics of a Tourette’s sufferer. Any bisexual women in NYC wanna chat? Or: I hate Irish accents! Or: I fucked my stepdad then blackmailed him into buying me a car.




A list of categories, scrawled on a whiteboard, reminds the workers of what they’re hunting for: pornography, gore, minors, sexual solicitation, sexual body parts/images, racism. When Baybayan sees a potential violation, he drills in on it to confirm, then sends it away—erasing it from the user’s account and the service altogether—and moves back to the grid. Within 25 minutes, Baybayan has eliminated an impressive variety of dick pics, thong shots, exotic objects inserted into bodies, hateful taunts, and requests for oral sex.

More difficult is a post that features a stock image of a man’s chiseled torso, overlaid with the text “I want to have a gay experience, M18 here.” Is this the confession of a hidden desire (allowed) or a hookup request (forbidden)? Baybayan—who, like most employees of TaskUs, has a college degree—spoke thoughtfully about how to judge this distinction.

“What is the intention?” Baybayan says. “You have to determine the difference between thought and solicitation.” He has only a few seconds to decide. New posts are appearing constantly at the top of the screen, pushing the others down. He judges the post to be sexual solicitation and deletes it; somewhere, a horny teen’s hopes are dashed. Baybayan scrolls back to the top of the screen and begins scanning again.

Eight years after the fact, Jake Swearingen can still recall the video that made him quit. He was 24 years old and between jobs in the Bay Area when he got a gig as a moderator for a then-new startup called VideoEgg. Three days in, a video of an apparent beheading came across his queue.

“Oh fuck! I’ve got a beheading!” he blurted out. A slightly older colleague in a black hoodie casually turned around in his chair. “Oh,” he said, “which one?” At that moment Swearingen decided he did not want to become a connoisseur of beheading videos. “I didn’t want to look back and say I became so blasé to watching people have these really horrible things happen to them that I’m ironic or jokey about it,” says Swearingen, now the social media editor at Atlantic Media. (Swearingen was also an intern at WIRED in 2007.)

While a large amount of content moderation takes place overseas, much is still done in the US, often by young college graduates like Swearingen was. Many companies employ a two-tiered moderation system, where the most basic moderation is outsourced abroad while more complex screening, which requires greater cultural familiarity, is done domestically. US-based moderators are much better compensated than their overseas counterparts: A brand-new American moderator for a large tech company in the US can make more in an hour than a veteran Filipino moderator makes in a day. But then a career in the outsourcing industry is something many young Filipinos aspire to, whereas American moderators often fall into the job as a last resort, and burnout is common.

Ryan Cadeno says he made $500 a month as a contractor for Microsoft. Moises Saman/Magnum

“Everybody hits the wall, generally between three and five months,” says a former YouTube content moderator I’ll call Rob. “You just think, ‘Holy shit, what am I spending my day doing? This is awful.’”

Rob became a content moderator in 2010. He’d graduated from college and followed his girlfriend to the Bay Area, where he found his history degree had approximately the same effect on employers as a face tattoo. Months went by, and Rob grew increasingly desperate. Then came the cold call from CDI, a contracting firm. The recruiter wanted him to interview for a position with Google, moderating videos on YouTube. Google! Sure, he would just be a contractor, but he was told there was a chance of turning the job into a real career there. The pay, at roughly $20 an hour, was far superior to a fast-food salary. He interviewed and was given a one-year contract. “I was pretty stoked,” Rob said. “It paid well, and I figured YouTube would look good on a résumé.”

For the first few months, Rob didn’t mind his job moderating videos at YouTube’s headquarters in San Bruno. His coworkers were mostly new graduates like himself, many of them liberal arts majors just happy to have found employment that didn’t require a hairnet. His supervisor was great, and there were even a few perks, like free lunch at the cafeteria. During his eight-hour shifts, Rob sat at a desk in YouTube’s open office with two monitors. On one he flicked through batches of 10 videos at a time. On the other monitor, he could do whatever he wanted. He watched the entire Battlestar Galactica series with one eye while nuking torture videos and hate speech with the other. He also got a fascinating glimpse into the inner workings of YouTube. For instance, in late 2010, Google’s legal team gave moderators the urgent task of deleting the violent sermons of American radical Islamist preacher Anwar al-Awlaki, after a British woman said she was inspired by them to stab a politician.

But as months dragged on, the rough stuff began to take a toll. The worst was the gore: brutal street fights, animal torture, suicide bombings, decapitations, and horrific traffic accidents. The Arab Spring was in full swing, and activists were using YouTube to show the world the government crackdowns that resulted. Moderators were instructed to leave such “newsworthy” videos up with a warning, even if they violated the content guidelines. But the close-ups of protesters’ corpses and street battles were tough for Rob and his coworkers to handle. So were the videos that documented misery just for the sick thrill of it.

“If someone was uploading animal abuse, a lot of the time it was the person who did it. He was proud of that,” Rob says. “And seeing it from the eyes of someone who was proud to do the fucked-up thing, rather than news reporting on the fucked-up thing—it just hurts you so much harder, for some reason. It just gives you a much darker view of humanity.”




Rob began to dwell on the videos outside of work. He became withdrawn and testy. YouTube employs counselors whom moderators can theoretically talk to, but Rob had no idea how to access them. He didn’t know anyone who had. Instead, he self-medicated. He began drinking more and gained weight.

It became clear to Rob that he would likely never become a real Google employee. A few months into his contract, he applied for a job with Google but says he was turned down for an interview because his GPA didn’t meet the requirement. (Google denies that GPA alone would be a deciding factor in its hiring.) Even if it had, Rob says, he’s heard of only a few contractors who ended up with staff positions at Google.

A couple of months before the end of his contract, he found another job and quit. When Rob’s last shift ended at 7 pm, he left feeling elated. He jumped into his car, drove to his parents’ house in Orange County, and slept for three days straight.

Given that content moderators might very well comprise as much as half the total workforce for social media sites, it’s worth pondering just what the long-term psychological toll of this work can be. Jane Stevenson was head of the occupational health and welfare department for Britain’s National Crime Squad—the UK equivalent of the FBI—in the early 2000s, when the first wave of international anti-child-pornography operations was launched. She saw investigators become overwhelmed by the images; even after she left her post, agencies and private organizations continued to ask for her help dealing with the fallout, so she started an occupational health consultancy, Workplace Wellbeing, focused on high-pressure industries. She has since advised social media companies in the UK and found that the challenges facing their content moderators echo those of child-pornography and anti-terrorism investigators in law enforcement.

“From the moment you see the first image, you will change for good,” Stevenson says. But where law enforcement has developed specialized programs and hires experienced mental health professionals, Stevenson says that many technology companies have yet to grasp the seriousness of the problem.

“There’s the thought that it’s just the same as bereavement, or bullying at work, and the same people can deal with it,” Stevenson says. “All of us will go through a bereavement, almost all of us will be distressed by somebody saying something we don’t like. All of these things are normal things. But is having sex with a 2-year-old normal? Is cutting somebody’s head off—quite slowly, mind you; I don’t mean to traumatize you but beheadings don’t happen quickly—is that normal behavior? Is that something you expect?”

In Manila, I meet Denise (not her real name), a psychologist who consults for two content-moderation firms in the Philippines. “It’s like PTSD,” she tells me as we sit in her office above one of the city’s perpetually snarled freeways. “There is a memory trace in their mind.” Denise and her team set up extensive monitoring systems for their clients. Employees are given a battery of psychological tests to determine their mental baseline, then interviewed and counseled regularly to minimize the effect of disturbing images. But even with the best counseling, staring into the heart of human darkness exacts a toll. Workers quit because they feel desensitized by the hours of pornography they watch each day and no longer want to be intimate with their spouses. Others report a supercharged sex drive. “How would you feel watching pornography for eight hours a day, every day?” Denise says. “How long can you take that?”

An employee at the Manila offices of Open Access BPO, another company that provides content moderation services. Moises Saman/Magnum

Nearby, in a shopping mall, I meet a young woman who I’ll call Maria. She’s on her lunch break from an outsourcing firm, where she works on a team that moderates photos and videos for the cloud storage service of a major US technology company. Maria is a quality-assurance representative, which means her duties include double-checking the work of the dozens of agents on her team to make sure they catch everything. This requires her to view many videos that have been flagged by moderators.

“I get really affected by bestiality with children,” she says. “I have to stop. I have to stop for a moment and loosen up, maybe go to Starbucks and have a coffee.” She laughs at the absurd juxtaposition of a horrific sex crime and an overpriced latte.

Constant exposure to videos like this has turned some of Maria’s coworkers intensely paranoid. Every day they see proof of the infinite variety of human depravity. They begin to suspect the worst of people they meet in real life, wondering what secrets their hard drives might hold. Two of Maria’s female coworkers have become so suspicious that they no longer leave their children with babysitters. They sometimes miss work because they can’t find someone they trust to take care of their kids.

Maria is especially haunted by one video that came across her queue soon after she started the job. “There’s this lady,” she says, dropping her voice. “Probably in the age of 15 to 18, I don’t know. She looks like a minor. There’s this bald guy putting his head to the lady’s vagina. The lady is blindfolded, handcuffed, screaming and crying.”

The video was more than a half hour long. After watching just over a minute, Maria began to tremble with sadness and rage. Who would do something so cruel to another person? She examined the man on the screen. He was bald and appeared to be of Middle Eastern descent but was otherwise completely unremarkable. The face of evil was someone you might pass by in the mall without a second glance.

After two and a half years on the cloud storage moderation team, Maria plans to quit later this year and go to medical school. But she expects that video of the blindfolded girl to stick with her long after she’s gone. “I don’t know if I can forget it,” she says. “I watched that a long time ago, but it’s like I just watched it yesterday.”

UPDATE: 24/10/2014 11:44 PT: Several captions in this story were updated to accurately reflect the name of the company Open Access BPO.

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23 Oct 06:14

A Dice Puzzle

by Greg Ross

Timothy and Urban are playing a game with two six-sided dice. The dice are unusual: Rather than bearing a number, each face is painted either red or blue.

The two take turns throwing the dice. Timothy wins if the two top faces are the same color, and Urban wins if they’re different. Their chances of winning are equal.

The first die has 5 red faces and 1 blue face. What are the colors on the second die?

Click for solution …

23 Oct 09:10

Por que você está insatisfeito com o seu candidato?

by Leonardo Monasterio
 Hotelling (1929) explica: suponha que os consumidores estão distribuídos ao longo de uma praia e existem dois sorveteiros, cada um em um dos extremos. Aquele que está à esquerda anda um pouco para a direita porque assim ganha consumidores nessa direção e não perde nenhum dos eleitores, digo consumidores, à esquerda. O mesmo acontece com o que iniciou na ponta direita. A situação final são os dois sorveteiros-candidatos localizados bem no meio da praia.
No segundo turno da eleição:
- Os eleitores nos extremos ideológicos, à direita e à esquerda, ficam frustrados por seus candidatos não seguirem a "agenda histórica" do partido (ou seja, tem que andar muito até chegar ao sorvete), mas votam neles de qualquer forma;
- Como qualquer opinião polêmica afastaria o candidato do eleitor mediano, o negócio é não discutir propostas e só atacar o caráter, o passado do outro ou simplesmente mentir descaradamente.
Em quatro anos, como dizem os rótulos de shampoo: "Repita o operação".
23 Oct 13:36

Why Are So Many of the World’s Oldest Companies in Japan?

Kongō Gumi Employees of Kongo Gumi, which built temples, circa 1930.

Photo via Wikimedia Commons

The oldest running hotel in operation is not in Paris or London or Rome. It is, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, in Yamanashi, Japan: a hot-spring hotel called Nisiyama Onsen Keiunkan, which has existed since the year 705. The second-oldest is another Japanese hot-springs hotel, Hoshi Ryokan, founded in 718.

But it isn’t just the world’s two oldest hotels. Japan is home to the world’s oldest lots of things. Sudo Honke, the world’s oldest sake brewer, has been around since 1141. Before being absorbed into a subsidiary in 2006, the oldest continuously operating family business in the world was Kongo Gumi, which built temples, and had been doing so for 14 centuries. The list goes on, and includes Yamanashi Prefecture Company, which has been making goods for home Buddhist altars and clothing for monks since 1024; Ichimojiya Wasuke, Japan’s oldest confectionary company, founded in 1000; Nakamura Shaji, a Buddhist temple and Shinto shrine construction company that dates back to 970; and Kyoto-based Tanaka Iga, which has been making Buddhist goods since 885.

The infusion of literal new blood into old family businesses ensures that ancient firms can keep evolving.

Ostensibly, it’s not surprising that an old country with an old economy would be home to so many old businesses. Many of the oldest companies are local and family-owned, such as sake brewers and inns (or ryokan) that were established for traders in the eighth century along the route from Tokyo to Kyoto. Even before it became the first non-Western, non-Christian country to industrialize in the 1870s, Japan boasted a well-developed agricultural economy “with rather sophisticated urban populations,” says Hugh Patrick, director of Columbia Business School’s Center on Japanese Economy and Business. This semi-elite urban class provided a strong consumer base.

But that only explains how the companies were established early on, not necessarily how they have managed to last. One factor was the right of primogeniture, says David Weinstein, professor of the Japanese economy at Columbia University. Because the eldest son inherited all of a patriarch’s wealth, companies in Japan could be passed on entirely to a single member of the family.

Even though primogeniture faded with the 20th century, owners still often pass their companies on to a single heir—although keeping business in the family is often aided and abetted by adult adoption, in which the company head legally adopts the right person to run his firm and then passes it on. (These adult adoptions are sometimes facilitated by a marriage between the heir presumptive and the owner’s daughter.) In 2011, more than 90 percent of the 81,000 individuals adopted in Japan were adults. Firms run by adopted heirs, research shows, outperform those run by “blood” heirs—and both adopted and blood heirs outperform nonfamily firms.

The infusion of literal new blood into old family businesses ensures that the nation’s ancient firms can keep evolving. The proof is in the pudding: Most of Japan’s oldest companies are family-owned. Weinstein points to the robust example of Sumitomo and Mitsui, both centuries-old, which merged to become the multinational SMBC, Japan’s second-largest bank. Perhaps most famously there is Nintendo, which started out as a playing-card maker in the 1800s and managed to metamorphosize into an iconic consumer electronics company while remaining a continuously owned family concern.

Hugh Whittaker of the University of Oxford’s Nissan Institute of Japanese Studies says that such businesses strike a delicate balance between continuation and innovation, a line they have walked for centuries. “The logic of doing business in Japan is a logic of commitment rather than a logic of choice,” Whittaker says, stressing that owners privilege longevity over the present moment. In other words, Japan’s business culture is not one to obsess over quarterly reports. “Family-owned enterprises are always going to have a lot more persistence,” Weinstein says. “They continue in the same sense that the name continues.”

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22 Oct 20:00

asylum-art: Motoi Yamamoto’s Incredible Saltscapes Japanese...





















asylum-art:

Motoi Yamamotos Incredible Saltscapes

Japanese artist Motoi Yamamoto sees more uses in salt than the ordinary person. His artwork stems from the death of his sister, who passed away at a young age from brain cancer. In Japanese culture there is an idea of throwing salt over yourself after you attend a funeral acts as a sort of cleansing. So Yamamoto started using salt as his medium, creating intricate labyrinths and mazes as he calls them. Not only does Motoi create intricate patterns but full scale installations as well.

There’s also a beautiful book by Motoi that showcases some of his art called Return to the Sea: Saltscapes by Motoi Yamamoto.

Watch the video:

22 Oct 20:15

Saving the cat Barsik in Russia.A interesting comment in the...



Saving the cat Barsik in Russia.
A interesting comment in the video:

Ladies and gentlemen. Here you can observe typical Russians in their natural habitat. A characteristic feature of their behavior being a fanatic desire to do something (technically) good while destroying everything around them. You should also pay attention to the fact that nobody in the crowd seems to realize the level of absurdity of the unveiling situation. With little-to-no effort, you can extrapolate this sort of behavior, making a lot of the recent world events much more understandable for you (if they were not obvious enough already).

22 Oct 17:44

What Catholics Really Believe, Ctd

by Andrew Sullivan
Adam Victor Brandizzi

Que história!

A reader writes:

I want to share with you an anecdote that I think powerfully illustrates the disconnect between the hierarchy and the sensus fidelium on how LGBT people should be treated by the church.

I was born and raised a very conservative Roman Catholic environment in Texas. This was true for my home, my parish, and the private Catholic school I attended from ages 10 to 18. The liberal Catholics you describe were not only nowhere to be found, I had no idea such people even existed This picture taken 21 March 2007 shows auntil I moved to Boston during college. The Catholics I grew up around had much more in common culturally and politically with Southern evangelicals than the East Coast lefty Catholics I got to know as an adult. They still do for the most part.

I’ve spent the last several years living in DC and now Brooklyn, but my job has sent me back to the home town in Texas for six weeks of training. Last Thursday, I had dinner with two friends (both about 15 years older than me) from the parish I grew up in. We got to talking about our kids, and one of my friends mentioned that he thinks his daughter (in her early 20s) is probably a lesbian. I have the same impression but don’t know for sure one way or the other (I’m friendly on Facebook with her) and told him so. At this point, I need to explain exactly how conservative this man is. He carries a concealed weapon at all times (not that uncommon in Texas), BUT – he told us that he even carries it to church, because he wants to be ready if ISIS invades through the southern border and attacks our church, which he reasons would be an obvious target (FYI, we are hundreds of miles from the border). He is 100% serious about this. That should give you an idea of where this man is coming from. Now, after he mentioned his suspicion about his daughter’s orientation, our other friend asked him how he would react if she came out to him.

He said that he’d tell her that he doesn’t share with her what he and her mother do in bed, so she doesn’t need to share it with him, but that he loves her and always will. He also told us that he’d respect her more if she came out instead of hiding who she is. One can certainly criticize this reaction, but there can be no question that it is one of unconditional love. We didn’t discuss any matters of church doctrine, but this is the type of attitude that I believe Pope Francis is trying show us we need to take towards our LGBT brothers and sisters: First and always love. This is how everyday Catholics know to treat real people in real life.

Andrew, if the hierarchy has lost my dear friend, who is as right-wing and reactionary as they come, I honestly don’t know who they still have. Both my friend and his daughter love the church and are quite active in it. As you’ve written, Francis is forcing the bishops to finally have a conversation the faithful have been having for years. And I’m beginning to think that the sensus fidelium may be that there’s little left to discuss. We can only pray that Francis succeeds in leading the hierarchy into the light of Truth, the Truth being love. First and always love.

(Photo: Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images)