16 Oct 11:16
by Hao Wei, Erwin F. Rodriguez, Anthony F. Hollenkamp, Anand I. Bhatt, Dehong Chen, Rachel A. Caruso
As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, titanium dioxide (TiO2) shows good gravimetric performance (336 mAh g−1 for LiTiO2) and excellent cyclability. To address the poor rate behavior, slow lithium-ion (Li+) diffusion, and high irreversible capacity decay, TiO2 nanomaterials with tuned phase compositions and morphologies are being investigated. Here, a promising material is prepared that comprises a mesoporous “yolk–shell” spherical morphology in which the core is anatase TiO2 and the shell is TiO2(B). The preparation employs a NaCl-assisted solvothermal process and the electrochemical results indicate that the mesoporous yolk–shell microspheres have high specific reversible capacity at moderate current (330.0 mAh g−1 at C/5), excellent rate performance (181.8 mAh g−1 at 40C), and impressive cyclability (98% capacity retention after 500 cycles). The superior properties are attributed to the TiO2(B) nanosheet shell, which provides additional active area to stabilize the pseudocapacity. In addition, the open mesoporous morphology improves diffusion of electrolyte throughout the electrode, thereby contributing directly to greatly improved rate capacity.
Mesoporous anatase TiO2 yolk–TiO2(B) shell microspheres are synthesized via a solvothermal process. Porous shells of thin TiO2(B) nanosheets are separated by a gap from the anatase TiO2 cores. These microspheres show a high reversible capacity and long-term cyclability as active anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.