Shared posts

23 Aug 23:01

“That’s Just a Theory”

by Don Boudreaux
(Don Boudreaux)


Here’s an insightful and spot-on cartoon by GMU Econ alum David Youngberg.

Screen Shot 2016-08-23 at 6.59.36 PM

22 Aug 19:43

Is the Libertarian Migration to New Hampshire Having an Impact?

by ReasonTV

"Libertarians, who I'm afraid will be disappointed in [the] November [presidential election], will look at the Free State Project as a way that they can actually make a difference on a smaller level with more impact," Matt Philips told Reason's Nick Gillespie.

A 15-year-old initiative to get libertarians to move to New Hampshire, the Free State Project reached a milestone in February by collecting its 20,000th pledge to relocate to the Granite State within five years.

Gillespie sat down with Philips, who's president of the Free State Project, at FreedomFest 2016 to discuss how the initiative is progressing.

About 7 minutes and 30 seconds.

Produced by Alex Manning. Camera by Austin Bragg and Jim Epstein. Music by Podington Bear.

Go to for downloadable versions and subscribe to Reason TV's YouTube Channel to receive automatic notifications when new material goes live.
23 Aug 17:36

Facebook can guess your political preferences — here's how to see how it's categorized you (FB)

by Lori Janjigian

A man poses with a magnifier in front of a Facebook logo on display in this illustration taken in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, December 16, 2015.   REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration/File Photo

This is yet another case of Facebook knowing way more about you than you think. 

The social network is categorizing its users as liberal, conservative, or moderate. This information is valuable for campaign managers and advertisers, especially in the midst of election season. 

For some, Facebook is able to come to conclusions about your political leanings easily, if you mention a political party on your page. For those that are less open about politics on social media, Facebook makes assumptions based on pages you like. 

As The New York Times explained, if you like Ben and Jerry's Facebook page and most of the other people that like that page identify as liberal, Facebook might assume you too are liberal. 

Personally, I'm not too politically active on Facebook and I was curious to see how they categorized me. To my surprise, I am "very liberal," when I was expecting "moderate" or "conservative." 

To find out how Facebook has categorized you, just follow these steps: 

SEE ALSO: Bed Bath & Beyond paid less than $30 million for One Kings Lane, a startup that was once worth $900 million

Go to your Ad Preferences page on Facebook

Using this link, you can see some of the ad preferences Facebook has for you. 

Next, you should see this Interests page:

On the right of the Interests section, look for "More" and then click on "Lifestyle and Culture"

See the rest of the story at Business Insider
22 Aug 15:41

Work Is the Antidote to Privilege

by Lauren K. Hall

Jobs are the way in which we stretch ourselves morally beyond our in-groups and see, touch, and listen to other people as human beings for the first time.

21 Aug 13:50

Bitcoin and the Law of Conservation of Energy

by Alex Millar
Guest contributor Alex Millar examines bitcoin through the lens of scientific law in an attempt to show that money is energy.
23 Aug 11:15

Which will be America’s first Heterodox University?

by Jonathan Haidt

Calling all college students: Do you love the intellectual climate on your campus? Or do you sometimes wish that a broader range of viewpoints was represented in the classroom, and by invited speakers? Are some students reluctant to speak up in class because they are afraid they’ll be shunned if they question the dominant viewpoint?

American college campuses have been growing more politically purified since the 1990s. Professors and visiting speakers who are not on the left, politically, are becoming increasingly rare. This should concern you—especially if you are on the left. Political orthodoxy impoverishes everyone’s education. Exposure to a diversity of viewpoints (i.e., heterodoxy) is the best way to expand your mind and improve your ability to deal with the politically diverse world you’ll find after graduation.

Heterodox Academy is therefore launching an initiative to empower students who want greater viewpoint diversity on campus. Working with students at several universities, we have drafted three short resolutions that you can use or modify as you please. Click here to see the resolutions, along with advice about how to get started. 

As John Stuart Mill wrote, in On Liberty:

He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion… Nor is it enough that he should hear the opinions of adversaries from his own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations. He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them…he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.

If you would like to reduce political orthodoxy at your school, then please consider introducing a resolution to your student government to declare your school a “Heterodox University.” The first school to do so will earn a great deal of positive media attention, attract a much larger number of applicants, and gain a national reputation for independent thinking. It will also have a much more open and exciting intellectual climate.

(This is the first of a suite of new tools and resources we’re releasing this fall to promote viewpoint diversity on college campuses and in academic disciplines).

22 Aug 19:32

Verizon is making a foray into the 'game changer' technology Wall Street is pumped about

by Tina Wadhwa


Verizon Communications, the largest telecommunications company in the US, is experimenting with blockchain technology.

Blockchain technology, which powers Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, depends on a distributed ledger that allows users to verify transactions without an intermediary. 

Autonomous Research has called the technology a "game changer," and Goldman Sachs has said that the technology "has the potential to redefine transactions."

Blockchain has tons of applications that are being explored by banks, startups, exchanges, and corporations that want to get in on the action.

Business Insider obtained a copy of the US patent, filed on May 10, for a passcode blockchain that Verizon has apparently been working on for three years.

The patent relates to digital content — think an e-book or a digital-music or video file. Verizon declined to comment.

Here is a passage from the filing:

"The DRM (digital rights management) system may maintain a list of passcodes in a passcode blockchain. The passcode blockchain may store a sequence of passcodes associated with the particular digital content and may indicate a currently valid passcode. For example, a first passcode may be assigned to a first user and designated as the valid passcode. If the access rights are transferred to a second user, a second passcode may be obtained and added to the blockchain, provided to the second user, and designated as the valid passcode. Thus, the first passcode may no longer be considered valid. If the second user transfers the access rights to a third user, a third passcode may be obtained and added to the blockchain, provided to the third user, and designated as the valid passcode. Thus, the first and second passcodes may no longer be considered valid.

"Furthermore, the expiration date associated with the key may continue to be in effect with respect to the second user and/or any subsequent users. Thus, if access rights for a particular digital content are associated with a rental period, or a subscription period, users may continue to transfer the rights to other users during the rental period."

There is quite a bit of excitement about having digital rights on a blockchain-type system. It could allow for pay-per-usage, for example, while smart contracts — the contractual clauses that form part of a transaction — could provide automatic payment distributions, according to a Moody's Investors Service report.

A blockchain of digital rights for consumer products — music and news articles, among others — could ensure that artists or authors are paid immediately once a consumer reads an article or listens to a song, with funds proportionally distributed as per contractual clauses.

Given lower transaction costs on a blockchain, micro-payments through a blockchain would be more feasible, allowing for a pay-per-usage setup each time an article is read or a song is listened to.

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Verizon CEO Lowell McAdam explains why he bought AOL

21 Aug 20:10

In Case You Doubted That White Progressives Are The Ultimate Racists

by tonyheller
22 Aug 23:49

The best photos on Steemit today!

Hey Steemians, I've just been taking a break from work and doing what has started to become a daily routine for me, scouring the photography subject on Steemit to bring you the best photos today - 08/22/16 - If you enjoy the list be sure to check out the artists Steemit pages, and if you're in the mood give me an upvote and follow, I'll be bringing you my faves of the day every day. First up today we have a shot from what I'm sure is currently the undisputed queen of Macro on Steemit, @trisnawati I love how this image is both beautiful and terrifying at the same time. I mean seriously, what is that crazy bug doing to that other bug?? Anyhow, if you like macro, and especially crazy insects, for sure go check out @trisnawati on Steemit, she is quite simply prolific at posting her incredible macro work. Next we have this image by @mrgreen Immediately followed by this image by @mrgreen as well I honestly couldn't decide which I like better, so I had to post them both. These photos are from his post here: entitled "Just a list of my assorted photos" Well, wow, @mrgreen has some spectacular "assorted" photos. He's got style, and a great eye, and he makes some incredible photos. Absolutely go check out @mrgreen on Steemit, you won't be disappointed. And now this beautiful decaying urban scene by @avtzis.petros I was suggested to check out @avtzis.petros a few days ago, and I am really thankful for that now. @avtzis.petros posts a wide variety of styles, and I suspect we will be seeing a lot more work from him in the future. This next photo was taken by @begstreets In this post @begstreets discusses the differences and reasons a photographer may choose black and white vs. color when editing your photos, you can read all about it on the post here: Personally I prefer the color photo, but go check out @begstreets on Steemit and see which one you prefer! Now another macro shot by @thecryptofiend @thecryptofiend Has some great breakdowns of his photos on this post, ( view the full post here: ) and discusses a bit about camera and lens evolution and choices as well. Next up is another macro bug shot, this time by @mweich This photo is of an incredible, and apparently quite rare, blue cuckoo bee. @mweich has some incredible work up on his Steemit profile, definitely worth a look. And be sure to check out his full post here: to see some more shots of this incredible bee. The last (but certainly not the least) photo today is this scene by @seventytimes7 I've heard incredible things about Zion national park, and I know that we will be making a trip there some time in the future, but for now I have to content myself with pictures of the beautiful scenery. This is only the second post by @seventytimes7 on Steemit, but hopefully we will see more great photos from them soon! Well, as always thanks for checking out the post Steemians. If you have any comments, criticisms, suggestions or just want to say hi, give me a shout in the comments! Remember to upvote and follow if you want to see more every day, and be sure to go check out these artists Steemit pages and give them some support as well! Dexter
23 Aug 00:09

"Blockchain Revolution" | Talks at Google worth a watch :)
22 Aug 23:01

Could this be the first 'real' flying car? $600,000 'flying motorbike' can hit 112mph on land AND in the air It’s 50 years since the Jetsons first predicted we’d be flying the family about in airborne cars. And experts say we are tantalisingly close to the dream becoming reality. They have voted the Pal-V One Helicycle, a two-seat hybrid car and gyrocopter, the ‘most likely to become a reality. Scroll down for video The Pal-V craft switches between drive and flight mode in just 10 minutes, and the Pal-V One Liberty edition will be delivered next year to the first customers. Maxim magazine recently selected PAL-V as the most likely company to deliver a ‘real’ flying car. ‘Clearly it is impressive that a magazine with a readership of close to 9 million people would recognize the work we have done to create a flying car that actually conforms to existing regulations and is safe to fly,’ said Robert Dingemanse, the firm’s CEO. He promises ‘significant updates’ in the next several months as the firm begins manufacturing of the PAL-V Limited Edition model. The firm also says it is ‘very advanced’ in certifying the product in Europe under EASA CS 27 regulations. Once finalized this will allow them to certify under FAR 27 regulations on this side of the Atlantic. The firm says its design is ‘The ultimate vehicle to go wherever and whenever you want to, easily overcoming all sorts of barriers. ‘Now you can leave home and fly-drive to almost any destination! Avoid traffic jams and cross lakes, fjords, rivers or mountain ranges like an eagle. ‘Land on the other side and drive in your own vehicle to your final destination.’ THE FIRST FLYING CAR? The two-seater vehicle converts from a three-wheeled motorcycle to a gyrocopter in 10 minutes. It has 230hp, four-cylinder engine and reaches speeds of up 112 mph in the air or on the road. The craft switches between drive and flight mode in just 10 minutes, and the Pal-V One Liberty edition will be delivered next year to the first customers. The craft switches between drive and flight mode in just 10 minutes, and the Pal-V One Liberty edition will be delivered next year to the first customers. The helicycle goes from 0 to 60 mph in under eight seconds. The gyrocopter is designed to cruise at low altitudes (below 4,000ft) and it requires a 540ft runway for take-offs. For landing, the vehicle needs just 100 ft. The 27-gallon gas tank provides a 220-mile flight range (750 miles on the road). It is made from carbon fiber, titanium, and aluminum and weighs 1,499lbs. Owners must have a Sports Pilot Certificate to fly the vehicle. It will make just 90, 25 of which have been allocated to North America. The firm has already flown its design several times. To drive and fly the Pal-V One, pictured, owners must have a driving license and a Sports Pilot Certificate ‘When you have a prestigious brand like Top Gear referring to our vehicle as the world’s first plausible flying car and now Maxim men’s magazine giving us a thumbs up for the world’s first real flying car, it means a lot,’ said the firm’s Vice President of Sales in North America, Mark Jennings-Bates. ‘We have recently started talking to buyers and have the first contracts in place and a lot of interest. ‘We anticipate deliveries of a certified PAL-V in North America to happen in 2018.’ ‘On the ground the vehicle drives like a sports car,’ said Pal-V. ‘Within minutes its rotor is unfolded and its tail is extended: then it is ready to take off thanks to the advanced gyrocopter technology.’ The 27-gallon gas tank in the Pal-V One, pictured, provides a 220-mile flight range or 750 miles on the road. It is made from carbon fiber, titanium, and aluminum and weighs 1,499lbs ‘With these successful test results it is proven that it is not only possible to build a flying car but also that it can be done within existing international rules for both flying and driving.’ The Pal-V One features a 230hp, four-cylinder engine powered by petrol. Its 27 gallon tank means pilots can fly for up to 220 miles at low altitudes – around 4,000ft – or drive for up 750 miles. It is made of carbon fiber, titanium, and aluminum and weighs 1,500lbs. The Pal-V One completed its maiden voyage just 18 months ago. It is available in red, pictured, or black
22 Aug 16:37

Monster Infant Star Discovered in Milky Way --"Thirty Times the Size of Our Sun"






Astronomers have identified a young star, located almost 11,000 light years away, which could help us understand how the most massive stars in the Universe are formed. This young star, already more than 30 times the mass of our Sun, is still in the process of gathering material from its parent molecular cloud, and may be even more massive when it finally reaches adulthood.

The researchers, led by a team at the University of Cambridge, have identified a key stage in the birth of a very massive star, and found that these stars form in a similar way to much smaller stars like our Sun – from a rotating disc of gas and dust. The results will be presented this week at the Star Formation 2016 conference at the University of Exeter, and are reported in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.


In our galaxy, massive young stars – those with a mass at least eight times greater than the Sun – are much more difficult to study than smaller stars. This is because they live fast and die young, making them rare among the 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, and on average, they are much further away.

“An average star like our Sun is formed over a few million years, whereas massive stars are formed orders of magnitude faster — around 100,000 years,” said Dr John Ilee from Cambridge’s Institute of Astronomy, the study’s lead author. “These massive stars also burn through their fuel much more quickly, so they have shorter overall lifespans, making them harder to catch when they are infants.”

The protostar that Ilee and his colleagues identified resides in an infrared dark cloud - a very cold and dense region of space which makes for an ideal stellar nursery. However, this rich star-forming region is difficult to observe using conventional telescopes, since the young stars are surrounded by a thick, opaque cloud of gas and dust. But by using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in Hawaii and the Karl G Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico, both of which use relatively long wavelengths of light to observe the sky, the researchers were able to ‘see’ through the cloud and into the stellar nursery itself.

By measuring the amount of radiation emitted by cold dust near the star, and by using unique fingerprints of various different molecules in the gas, the researchers were able to determine the presence of a ‘Keplerian’ disc - one which rotates more quickly at its centre than at its edge.

“This type of rotation is also seen in the Solar System - the inner planets rotate around the Sun more quickly than the outer planets,” said Ilee. “It’s exciting to find such a disc around a massive young star, because it suggests that massive stars form in a similar way to lower mass stars, like our Sun.”

The initial phases of this work were part of an undergraduate summer research project at the University of St Andrews, funded by the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS). The undergraduate carrying out the work, Pooneh Nazari, said, “My project involved an initial exploration of the observations, and writing a piece of software to ‘weigh’ the central star. I’m very grateful to the RAS for providing me with funding for the summer project — I’d encourage anyone interested in academic research to try one!”

From these observations, the team measured the mass of the protostar to be over 30 times the mass of the Sun. In addition, the disc surrounding the young star was also calculated to be relatively massive, between two and three times the mass of our Sun. Dr Duncan Forgan, also from St Andrews and lead author of a companion paper, said, “Our theoretical calculations suggest that the disc could in fact be hiding even more mass under layers of gas and dust. The disc may even be so massive that it can break up under its own gravity, forming a series of less massive companion protostars.”

The next step for the researchers will be to observe the region with the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA), located in Chile. This powerful instrument will allow any potential companions to be seen, and allow researchers to learn more about this intriguing young heavyweight in our galaxy.

Rho Cassiopeiae (Rho Cas) shown at the top of the page belongs to an unusual class of stars, a yellow hypergiant of which only seven have been found in the Milky Way. Despite being located some 10,000 light-years (ly) away, the star is visible to the naked eye because it is over 500,000 times more luminous than Sol. With surface temperatures between 3,500 and 7,000 °K, yellow hypergiants appear to be stars that are at a very evolved stage of their life and may be close to exploding as supernovae.

The Daily Galaxy via RAS and University of Cambridge

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20 Aug 00:08

The Future Of Internet: Decentralized, Secure, Private As someone that hate centralized power you should be looking at this project: Imagine a new Internet where nobody can control, shutdown, spy... The network uses all computers in the world to store bits of everyone information, users can chose if they give 1GB, 10GB or 10T to the network (as cpu power) and can get Safecoin for that. No Servers needed. No central planer like ICANN... You can create an account in the network with a publicID, and then host websites. Your new website would look like safe://yourwebsitename.yourPublicID and nobody can shoutdown your website, only you. Since all data is divided in litle bits, encrypted, and send in random to diferents places, nobody can ever get your information, you can use this network as a new secure Dropbox. If you need more space, you can buy more 1 time only for safecoin. Basicly, we have http:// and https://, witch the second one is a scam to make you pay more if you want a secure website... this is governement Internet... Maidsafe will bring a decentralized Internet safe:// witch is private, secure, free, descentralized, censorship resilient, open-sorce... Alot have to be done but its comming, see this: - What is done: - Roadmap: - Safe Browser to implement the new " safe://" protocole is still a comunity idea: This will change everything!
22 Aug 15:25

Beware, Facebook! Decentralised Social Network is Approaching

by CoinTelegraph

Tel-Aviv based decentralized tech stack development company, Synereo has announced that it will be releasing the Alpha phase of decentralised social network in September. The company claims that this

22 Aug 21:49

The REAL Reason You Should Invest In Cryptocurrency


That's right. Robots. When the day comes that robots take over the Earth, do you think they will accept cash as a form of payment? What need do they have for paper? And coins are made out of metal. That is what robots are made of. How do you think they will feel when they see that we made money out of them? Mad. So do yourself a favour and prepare for the robot takeover today.

20 Aug 18:30

Being A Victim Apparently Has More Status Now Than Being A Gold Medal Winner -- Ryan Lochte Channels "Jackie"

by admin

There appears to be no rational way to explain Ryan Lochte's bizarre need to make up a story about being the victim of an armed robbery.  The media seems to be pushing the notion that he made up the story to cover up his own vandalism at a gas station, but that makes zero sense.  He had already defused the vandalism incident with a payment of cash to the station owner.  The rational response would be to just shut up about the whole thing and let it be forgotten.

But instead, he purposely made a big deal about the incident, switching around the facts until he was a victim of an armed assault by men posing as police officers, up to and including harrowing details of a cocked gun being jammed into his forehead.  The incident, likely ignored otherwise, suddenly became a BIG DEAL and subsequent investigation (including multiple video sources) showed Lochte to be a bald-faced liar.

The only way I can explain Lochte's motivation is to equate it with the lies by "Jackie" at the University of Virginia, whose claims of being gang-raped as published in the Rolling Stone turned out to be total fabrications.  Like Lochte, she dressed up the story with horrifying details, such as being thrown down and raped on a floor covered in broken glass.  The only real difference I can see, in fact, between Lochte and Jackie  is that the media still protects Jackie (via anonymity) from well-deserved humiliation for her lies while it is piling on Lochte.

I can sort of understand Jackie's motivation -- she was by all accounts a frustrated, perhaps disturbed, certainly lonely young woman who was likely looking for some way to dramatically change her life.  But Lochte?  Ryan Lochte has won multiple Olympic medals, historically in the sports world a marker of the highest possible status.  But in today's world, Lochte viewed victimhood as even higher status.

19 Aug 05:00

Trump and Blacks

by Thomas Sowell
Who would have thought that Donald Trump, of all people, would be addressing the fact that the black community suffers the most from a breakdown of law and order? But sanity on racial issues is sufficiently rare that it must be welcomed, from whatever source it comes. When establishment...
19 Aug 21:34

New Snowden docs suggest Shadow Broker leak was real

by Andrew Tarantola

h/t Roumen.ganeff

On Monday, a group of hackers calling themselves the Shadow Broker put up a number of cyber-espionage tools reportedly stolen from NSA-associated hacking outfit, the Equation Group. Edward Snowden has already publicly speculated that the intrusion an...
19 Aug 16:52

The Big Driver of Mass Incarceration That Nobody Talks About

by Jason Willick

h/t Whig Zhou

If you follow media coverage of America’s mass incarceration problem, you are likely to hear a lot about unscrupulous police officers, mandatory minimums, and drug laws. But you are unlikely to hear these two words that have probably played a larger role in producing the excesses of the American criminal justice system than anything else: plea coercion.

The number of criminal cases that actually go to trial in America is steadily dwindling. That’s because prosecutors have so much leverage during plea bargaining that most defendants take an offer—in particular, defendants who are held on bail, and who might need to wait in jail for months or even years before standing trial and facing an uncertain outcome.We reported last week on a study from Columbia showing that all things being equal, defendants in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia who were made to pay bail are much more likely to plead guilty. Since then, a separate study from researchers at Harvard, Princeton and Stanford has come out that reaches a similar conclusion:

Using data from administrative court and tax records, we find that being detained before trial significantly increases the probability of a conviction, primarily through an increase in guilty pleas. Pre-trial detention has no detectable effect on future crime, but decreases pre-trial crime and failures to appear in court. We also find suggestive evidence that pre-trial detention decreases formal sector employment and the receipt of employment- and tax-related government benefits. We argue that these results are consistent with (i) pre-trial detention weakening defendants’ bargaining position during plea negotiations, and (ii) a criminal conviction lowering defendants’ prospects in the formal labor market.

As the study notes, letting accused defendants go free before trial has drawbacks: It modestly increases the likelihood that they will miss court dates and be accused of a different crime before their trial. But it also allows them to enter plea negotiations on stronger footing, and increases the chance they will opt for a jury trial. And as we wrote earlier this year, “a world in which only single digit percentages of defendants get a full and fair trial doesn’t seem much like the America you learn about in civics class.”

Of course, bail remains a vital tool for judges, and some defendants are too dangerous to be let out before their trial, period. But there are ways we might be able to reform the pre-trial detention system so as to reduce the number of defendants who simply resign themselves to a guilty plea out of desperation since they can’t come up with the money to buy their temporary freedom. For example, the average amount of money bail assessed should be reduced (it has risen exponentially over the last several decades) and courts should experiment with ankle bracelets and home visits to monitor defendants rather than holding them in a jail cell before they have been convicted of a crime.The focus on policing and minimum sentences and drug laws in the public discourse is all well and good. But if they are serious about making our justice system more fair and less arbitrary, criminal justice reformers should devote more of their efforts to reforming what happens in the period after arrest and before sentencing. That’s an area where big progress can be made with relatively straightforward, and politically palatable reforms.
20 Aug 10:55

Studying The Arctic – Before Scientists Were Paid To Lie

by tonyheller

Sixty years ago, scientists understood that glacial retreat and Arctic ice loss was due Earth to coming out of the little ice age.

Screen Shot 2016-08-20 at 3.53.23 AM-down

29 Sep 1954, Page 18 – The Daily Times

This was still understood by scientists at the end of the 20th century, until Michael Mann corrupted climate science with his hockey stick. It is only been the last 15 years that climate science has been completely dysfunctional and corrupt.

Screen Shot 2016-08-20 at 4.53.58 AM-down


20 Aug 01:15

The Jefferson Letters, Vol. 1: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

by Mike Maharrey

EDITOR’S NOTE: The following is an excerpt from the newly-released ebook, The Jefferson Letters, Vol. 1: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Available as a free download at this link.

In 1798, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, formally detailing the principles of nullification for the first time. Standing alone, the resolutions make a strong case for nullification. But they don’t reveal the whole story.

The resolutions were actually just a first step in the strategy Madison and Jefferson developed for dealing with the unconstitutional Alien and Sedition Acts. Correspondence between the two men, and other players involved in the fight to block this early example of federal overreach, provide a much clearer picture of what they were trying to accomplish in the long run.

During the summer of 1798, Congress passed four laws together known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws violated several constitutional provisions and represented a gross federal usurpation of power.

The first three laws dealt with the treatment of resident aliens. TheAlien Friends Act gave the president sweeping power to deport “dangerous” aliens, in effect elevating the president to the role of judge, jury and “executioner.” The Alien Enemies Act allowed for the arrest, imprisonment and deportation of any male citizen of a nation at war with the U.S., even without any evidence that the individual was an actual threat. These laws unconstitutionally vested judicial powers in the executive branch and denied the accused due process.

The most insidious of the laws was the Sedition Act. It essentially criminalized criticism of the federal government, a blatant violation of the First Amendment.

Recognizing the Alien and Sedition Acts represented a serious threat to the constitutional system, and with few options for addressing the overreach due to Federalist Party control of the federal government, Jefferson and Madison turned to the states.

Jefferson secretly drafted the Kentucky Resolutions, and the Kentucky legislature passed a revised version on Nov. 10, 1798. Asserting that “the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government,” Jefferson proclaimed that nullification was the proper way to deal with unconstitutional acts.

“Where powers are assumed which have not been delegated, a nullification of the act is the rightful remedy: that every State has a natural right in cases not within the compact, (casus non fœderis) to nullify of their own authority all assumptions of power by others within their limits: that without this right, they would be under the dominion, absolute and unlimited, of whosoever might exercise this right of judgment for them.

On Dec. 24, 1798, the Virginia Senate passed resolutions penned by Madison, asserting not only the right, but the duty, for states to step in and stop unconstitutional actions.

“In case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.”

jefferson-letters-cover-v-1-768x1152Taken together, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions lay out the principles of nullification. But they did not actually nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. These non-binding resolutions merely made the case for nullification and set the stage for further action in the future.

As Jefferson and Madison strategized on how to address the Alien and Sedition Acts, they corresponded by mail, discussing their ideas. Ten key letters give further insight into their strategy. Their correspondence reveals that the resolutions were merely intended to serve as a starting point, setting the stage for additional, more aggressive steps to stop the federal overreach.

Wilson Cary Nicholas was also involved in the effort. He was an important figure in the Virginia ratifying convention that approved the Constitution, and at the time the Alien and Sedition Acts passed, he served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. He was a close and trusted friend of Jefferson, and delivered Jefferson’s draft of the Kentucky Resolutions to John Breckinridge, who eventually introduced them in the Kentucky House.

Following, you will find the ten letters between these three men reprinted in their entirety. Some of the letters also address other issues. In those cases, the relevant passages have been bolded.

21 Aug 18:05

How Steemit technology and principles can (and will) become the foundation the future of management in companies (Featuring new author @sebastien) I work in a 30 Billion dollar company and I am in charge of business innovation there. It is a huge company, with 10th of thousands of employees, countless departments, millions of emails per day, and a lot...a **freaking** lot of things happening everyday. ### One of the major challenges a company this size deals with is called “MANAGEMENT”, and Steemit technology can revolutionlize it --- # 1/ Introduction to Management and Hierarchy concepts I'll start with a very brief (1 min read) introduction of these concepts. Management can simply be translated as: > How to recognize, promote and empower the best employees. Managing a team of 3, 10 or 300 is quite a different exercise, but the fundamentals are the same: * figure out who is good (where *good* may have multiple definitions, but I will not discuss this today) * give them challenges, test their limits * reward the ones who deliver * empower the best, promote them to higher positions It takes a lot of time. Therefore, to make sure every director or manager does not have to deal with 300 people, most companies have created something we call **HIERARCHY**. Hierarchy is just a way to create layers of power inside the company, and to make sure that a director or a manager does not spend 99% of his time dealing with human resources. Giving him time and more focus allows him to concentrate his energy on defining or applying the strategy of the company. ### It’s pretty much like Steemit's structure: * Whales, which would be the SVPs of the company * Dolphins, which could be the VPs * Bigger Minnows are the managers * Little Minnows are the employees And if you cut into [a more detailed structure](, you can create as many layers as you want based on the **steem power** of each category. This is **the hierarchy of Steemit**. And, as [many users mentioned already](, each user is important and has a role in the ecosystem. --- # 2/ Steemit "topics" are the company "directions": Every Whale, Dolphin or Minnow has his or her specialized or preferred set of topics. Photography, Politics, Money, Food… you name it… If we continue the parallel with a company, each topic would represent a field, a direction * Finance * Marketing * Sales * After-Sales * Engineering … Even if structure-wise, a company has a more limited amount of expertise fields than here on Steemit, in the end it’s the same logical structure. For each **topic** you will find a **Whale** following specifically this topic, a dedicated group of **Dolphins** and lots of **Minnows** producing content. For each Direction, you have a **SVP**, multiple **VPs** with sub-specializations, and employees that we call **staff**. --- # 3/ Steemit "levels" are the company "positions": Let’s have a look to these aforementioned positions and see in detail how they relate to a company structure: As @dantheman mentioned [here](, the job of the Whales is **NOT** to CREATE content: most of their work should consist in CURATING content. > Curation is a game for whales and dolphins. Minnows should stick to posting and commenting Same logic applies in a company, the job of a Financial Director is **NOT** to do or verify accounting. It is the job of the staff: Employees and managers **are the Minnows.** ### 1- Smaller Minnows: the employees As @danthemnan said, their job is to CREATE content. To produce things, to write stuff. They (we) are the blue collars of Steemit, and their revenues are low. Employees do multiple things for the companies: accounting, production, sales... These small bricks are like the blood-cells of a company: they work in numbers and are **VITAL**. With experience, a specialization in a field (Politics), Employees will increase their expertise and will make them do a better job, increasing their revenues and potentially being promoted to managers. On Steemit, specialized Minnows create better and better posts, and get more Steem Power and Steem Dollars. ### 2- Bigger Minnows: the Managers One a employee becomes a manager, his revenues increase. He’s a specialized asset in the company, in charge of Marketing, Supply chain… you name it. On steemit, the posts of this person became more precise, easier to read, providing more original content. The Minnow is often specialized in a specific type of post, or 2. The Minnow also has a growing base of followers, generally 70% are smaller minnows and 10% are Dolphins. This is the moment where he or she becomes to be more visible to the community, yielding more revenues. And if the minnow stands out by the quality of his work, a Whale may promote him... **This is the upvote process.** ### 3- Dolphins: the VPs (vice presidents) Dolphins interact differently than Minnows. Their job is to **promote** the minnows by upvoting them. By doing so, they generate massive curation rewards. Their salaries are therefore higher. Going from the status of Dolphin to the status of Whale is like entering the board of a company. You have a very limited amount of seats, and only a very few make it. These few not only stand out by curating, they also sometimes post outstanding stories. Their curating work made them experts in some fields, their sharp comments and the respect earned from their position generate even more followers. Some may even convert their Steem Dollars into Steem Power, like a Manager would buy Stocks with is bonus, becoming what we call an **Associate**. Ultimately, dolphins can use their power and their followers and try to become a Whale… **but this can only happen if the Whales agree on it.** ### 4- Whales: the SVPs (senior vice presidents) They are at the top of the company. They do not produce content, or in a very limited way. They CURATE. Upvoting and therefore promoting dolphins and sometime some minnows… Like the SVP’s the Whales main job is to decide WHO will become a Dolphin, and ultimately who will seat at the board of Whales. Like the SVP’s **salaries**, the Whales **revenues** are massive and their competencies are not only impacting their respective fields: **They have the mission to make this place a long-lasting and sustainable one.** They are the warrants of the company (or Steemit) **values and strategy**. --- # 4/ How Steemit mechanics can be applied to a company governance Imagine your current company, and give to each employee an equivalent of **Steem Power** and **Steem Dollars**. Your SVP has a lot of this power, the VPs and managers a bit less, and the employees not much. ### A- Steem Power = the level of responsibility. Let’s call it **CareerPower** now. And let’s imagine you have a process that consists in **upvoting** for your colleages work on a monthly or yearly basis. It can be comparable to selecting the employee of the month for instance. The employees’ work is now **ALSO** judged by their colleagues, and therefore the *good work* can be noticed by directors because the minnows made it “active”. As said, these colleagues UPVOTE the work, and like on Steemit: * the more a colleague has power, the more his upvote counts. * upvoting GREAT WORK also provides him benefits on his Career Power. An outstanding realization or continuous success in multiple missions will generate more CareerPower to the creator. Upvoting for the right realizations, like a great tool on Excel or a great Study on Powerpoint, will yield curation rewards too: * At the entry level, employees are more incentived to make good work (powerpoint, excel… ). * At a higher level, Dolphins will curate and upvote for such content too. At their level, they will promote the realizations that go in the direction of the company governance. Giving even more power to some minnows. * At the top, Whales will emphasis even more this selection, but they can also select an ignored realization in order to massively promote it. ### B- Steem Dollars = the equivalent of the bonuses Exactly like on Steemit, on top of the CareerPower, you have the equivalent of the SteemDollars: **Pure financial recognition**. What today we call **Bonuses**. This is the immediate reward for the good job. ### C- Climbing the corporate ladder with CareerPower. After multiple upvote sessions, over the course of their career, some employees start to have more power, they can now become Managers, then VPs, and potentially SVPs. The same emplyees also have more bonuses, paid in $. As you can easily understand, how long you have been working in the company also matters. And for new entrants, depending on their former positions, they will start with a negotiated amount of CareerPower, depending on their position in the company. --- # 5/ Conclusions: ### The mechanics of Steemit, today applied to a social media and blogging Internet site, may become the foundation of a new way of managing a company. * Allowing the promotion of the work of employees with a Blockchain structure and creating a CareerPower metric will revolutionize how employees are promoted. * Networking will still be key, but ultimately, the quality of you work will prevail. * On a HR (Human Resources) point of view, the Blockchain will allow a total transparency for career related decisions. * Every employee will be able to compare himself with others, enabling a productive internal competition. ### As per today, Hierarchy and Management concepts are obsolete. Steemit will optimize how we work together, bringing and organizing just the right level of #anarchy in the system. ### It would not be surprising seeing companies like Facebook or Alphabet (Google) putting in place such solutions in the near future. @sebastien _Follow me if you enjoyed._ ***@dragonslayer109 features authors to promote new authors and a diversity of content. ALL STEEM Dollars for this post go to the featured author*** ***Don't just follow me, follow the author as well, if you like their post - @sebastien. Thank you***
21 Aug 16:17

Free Technology Isn't Good Enough Any More - Reply to a post by @mohamedmashaal

I just read "War Is Here . Microsoft wants to pay you to use its Windows 10 browser Edge and Dump Chrome ." [here]( by @mohamedmashaal. Viewed over a period of decades, I think this may reveal an interesting trend . Those of us who are old enough to remember the '90s (did I really just write that?) remember the IE vs. Netscape "browser wars" over placement of a free browser on user desktops. Here we sit a couple decades later, and apparently browsers are another area where "free" isn't good enough any more. For those keeping score, there are now technology companies paying users to use their products in the following areas: Social media - steemit Internet Search - Microsoft Bing Browser usage - Microsoft Edge (and soon, Brave) (Not to mention the whole sharing economy!) Could it be that as automation and AI take over many professions, "jobs" of the future will mean getting paid to do what we would've done anyway and agreeing to let some tech company come along for the ride? In my introductory [post](, I mentioned that I'm a big fan of Jaron Lanier's idea that technology companies should succeed by finding ways to reward their customers. I don't agree with everything in this video, but it is fascinating to listen to, and I think his insight about "honest accounting" will eventually become a market mandate. If a company derives value from something, the value must be compensated, or another company will pay to intercept that value. (Incidentally, this honest accounting for information is something that steemit seems to be getting right - or at least closer to right.) Obviously, no one's going to get rich by searching Bing or using the Edge browser, but the market for harvesting human knowledge and behavior at large scale seems to be headed in an interesting direction.
21 Aug 14:07

Founded & Driven By The Anarchists: Why Everyone Can Be Using Steemit To Free The World
20 Aug 17:57

Relativizing the Singularity

## The Ordinary Course of Revolution When Newton published the *Principia*, he was *apotheosized*. To quote Pope's eulogy: > Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: > God said, "Let Newton be!" and all was light. On the ceiling of the rotunda of the United States Capitol, there is a large painting called [The Apotheosis of George Washington](, showing the great man seated in the clouds, clad in a Roman toga, having become a sort of demiurge. I mean, that painting is absurd, and that's what happened to Newton. The god-like intellect, which o'er the cosmos casts its eye of light, that sort of thing. A similar kind of shock and awe overtook the Western world during the Industrial Revolution. Mendeleev's table had come out in 1869, Lovelace and Babbage and Boole were at work, Maxwell and Heaviside and Gibbs back in America were working out statistical mechanics and vector calculus. Lord Kelvin thought there were no more physical laws to discover. You get the sense that the scientists in the late Victorian Age were just overcome with how much they knew, how much they'd discovered in such a short time. Then, of course, Einstein, Bohr, Gödel, Turing, von Neumann struck. Again, Einstein in particular became a massive celebrity, the one who had unlocked the secrets of the universe. By that time, Kuhn and Popper and others had enough historical data to begin to think about the process of scientific revolutions. These worldview-shattering, humanity-altering scientific discoveries were to be somewhat… expected. The scientific community in general became more adept at thinking about uncertainty in their theories. The vocabulary of *models* took over, a key change, because we can think about a model being *more accurate* than the previous model, while at the same time permitting uncertainty and the possibility that the model, and the larger scientific model or paradigm within which it is situated, may need to be fundamentally revised. I think few of us look back wistfully to the days of Newton or Kelvin, those first heady days of humanity's discovery of somewhat-accurate principles of the cosmos, and wish we still felt that certainty that we now knew all there was to know. We're happy to watch the ongoing process of scientific discovery and we hope every year for a new paradigmatic revolution, a tectonic plate theory that will upend all we know. We have relativized these revolutions. We have placed them within a loosely Hegelian framework of continuing intellectual progress. Our meta-model, if you will, of the scientific process which constructs all our scientific models, now embraces revolution as the ordinary course of scientific work. We honor Crick and Watson, but we do not apotheosize them. No clouds and togas for them! Our awe at the shocks to our intellectual girdings has diminished. This is to the good, because we can think more sensibly about *how to find* the next revolutionary idea, and about *what comes after* the world-shattering idea. ## The Technological Singularity Almost as soon as we realized that thought itself could be constructed from smaller, deterministically-programmed parts, we deduced that thinking machines might one day think and feel all that we do, but bigger and faster. The Industrial Revolution would move into mental work, just as powerfully as machines took over physical labor but perhaps more precisely. The implications of that deduction lay dormant in popular discourse for awhile. Since deep learning became a viable technique about 2006, thanks to Moore's Law and huge amounts of data on which to train our algorithms, Silicon Valley has renewed its debate over the future possibilities of AI. Roughly put, the field is divided between those who believe we can design a superhuman general intelligence that is friendly to humans, those who point out the weak have never been able to control the strong, and those who believe we will unite with our machines to become silicon-carbon cyborgs. As a result, we are currently discussing our latest world-altering intellectual revolution. Unlike previous revolutions, the idea of a technological singularity is more technological than scientific, but there's a similar sense that "this could change everything," a similarly apocalyptic tone. The debate is eschatological or apocalyptic not only in the fear that we might not survive it, but also in the sense that a technological singularity would mean the end of intellectual history, in a sense. If it comes, it comes, and then everything we've done will be dwarfed. What more is there to say? ## A Word with Our Descendants I don't know which scenario is more likely. If we are all wiped out, though, there's not much to say to the machines or organisms which succeed us and spread through the cosmos. Let us imagine, then, that our successors are something we recognize. Perhaps they are more-or-less normal humans, longer-lived and served by quasi-intelligent machines. Perhaps they are cyborgs, traces of humans who have evolved and merged into something beyond our comprehension still remaining. Perhaps humans and machines live together as equals, like in Iain Banks' *Culture* series. At any rate, even if they do not look much like us, they are something in whose history we played a role. They could look back to us as we look back to the scientists and engineers who created our lavish way of life. What would they say about the Singularity? For them, it was a revolution in life, a historic step forward. Still, time and again they have encountered similar events of seemingly cosmic significance. Remember - they say - the first time we figured out how to access a higher dimension? Remember when we hit 80% of lightspeed for the first time? Remember when we confirmed the existence of other universes? Remember when we encountered an older and more powerful civilization for the first time? (Boy were we lucky it was just the Chi Deltans!) Remember when we figured out how to share parts of brains and consciousness? ## Keep Your Trousers On Human history may stop with the Singularity, but if it does not then technological singularities will also become relativized. Our descendants, or the successors to *homo sapiens sapiens*, will place existential progress into the context of a historical process. As Silicon Valley debates how and whether to approach the goal of a fully general artificial intelligence, there is no reason to fall into the trap of ceasing to think about *what comes after* the Singularity. The name itself, of course, implies that there is nothing of importance after the Singularity (where do you go after you enter a black hole? Certainly not home for tea!). Just as relativizing scientific revolutions can help us approach them and think about their implications and aftermath more intelligently, relativizing the technological singularity could help us approach the matter in a sensible manner. Putting an existential occurrence into context can help us think a little better about how to approach the design of AGI. And while I'm certainly not suggesting we can forecast with any certainty what comes after the Singularity, I do think we should keep in mind that there may *be an after*, and we should start thinking about it in sensible ways as soon as we can, as soon as it makes sense to.
20 Aug 00:00

Which States Have The Most Millennials Living At Home With Mom

by Tyler Durden

h/t Whig Zhou

We've written frequently over the years about the legions of "safe space" seeking Millennials moving back in with mom (see "More Young Americans Live With Their Parents Than At Any Time Since The Great Depression").  As the Pew Research Center reported back in May, for the first time ever more 18-34 year olds are living at home with mom than are "married or cohabiting in their own households."  According to Pew research the biggest reason for Millennials moving back home is their inability find jobs to support their independence.  Take, for example, "young" Lisa Jacobs:

Lisa Jacobs holds two bachelor’s degrees, one in photography and one in graphic design. But work has been sporadic, so this year she moved back in with her parents in Somerset, New Jersey.

“My parents have a lovely home, but nobody’s happy to be living at home at 32,” Jacobs said, adding that she needs to make at least $20 an hour to afford an apartment. “There are plenty of places that would pay me $15 an hour. But that’s not getting me any closer to moving out.”

Frankly, we're shocked that someone with TWO uselessamazing bachelor degrees wouldn't be able to find a job in such a robust economy.  But don't strain yourself, young Lisa Jacobs, with a $15 per hour job that is beneath your level of you just move in with mom and wait for your dreams to come true!

For parents who might find themselves in similar situations, the University of Minnesota has developed a very helpful map to assess the risk of your over-educated, entitled, self-indulging offspring moving back home.  Unsurprisingly, parents are most at risk in the states with large, expensive metropolitan cities where recently-educated, residentially-challenged young adults like to return to indulge their "social" desires but can't necessarily afford to live.  The states with the highest percentage of Millennials living at home were New Jersey (43.9%), Connecticut (38.8%), New York (37.4%) Florida (37.2%) and California (36.7%). 

If you're the parent of a Millennial and just want to be left alone might we suggest a nice "fly-over" state like North Dakota where only 15.6% of Millennials are found to be living at home.  Sure it's a little cold but the remote, barren landscapes are amazing Millennial deterrents.

(click on map below to be redirected to interactive version with additional stats)

Millennials At Home

20 Aug 12:35

Bobby Lee on bitcoin - I couldn't have said it better bitcoin is the SI units for money!
20 Aug 16:48

Astronomers Confirm Model Of How Stars Go Nova UNEXPECTED DISCOVERIES Watching stars go nova or supernova is of particular interest to astronomers. Its an understandable interest that any astronomically large explosion would attract. So you may assume that the steps and the stages stars would go through during one would be well documented. Well, not so much. Polish astronomers working at the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) have, for the first time ever, fully documented the stages of a regular nova. That means the astronomers were able to see the complete evolution, the pre- and post-nova stages of a single white dwarf. What’s amazing was that the astronomers weren’t looking for novas—OGLE is a long-term surveying project that uses microlensing to search for dark matter. Instead, in 2003, they stumbled on V1213 Cen, or Nova Centauri 2009, a white dwarf star in a cataclysmic variable star system. DOCUMENTING EVOLUTION These kinds of star systems are composed of a white dwarf and a low-mass star. Its a binary sort of system, with the distance between them no larger than the Earth-Moon distance. This closeness, coupled with the intense gravity of a white dwarf, means that said white dwarf is actively leeching material from the low-mass star into a disk around the dwarf. V1213 Cen is an example of a slow version of this process, called “mass theft.” Since it is slow, the material becomes unstable and erupts in small “dwarf novas”. These dwarf novas push material, primarily hydrogen, into the surface of the white dwarf. Thus, the white dwarf becomes larger until it reaches a certain mass, at which point it erupts into a classic nova. After this, there are several centuries of high-rate mass transfer, then a millennia-long hibernation period, until it ultimately awakes to start the cycle all over again.
18 Aug 20:54

Gridcoin, A currency minted by doing science !

19 Aug 01:04

Rise of True Transhumanism! DARPA Develops First Bionic Arm Completely Controlled By Thoughts Which Also Feels The Touch! Unbelievable! The scientists from DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) have developed the first mind controlled, bionic arm, which also feels the touch! This is something, which has never been achieved before. I was astounded when I watched this video. Science rocks! Sources: "Revolutionizing Prosthetics" "We’re about to get prosthetics that can not only move for you but feel for you"