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05 Dec 14:27

GPBA: a GPCR for bile acids and an emerging therapeutic target for disorders of digestion and sensation.

by Lieu T, Jayaweera G, Bunnett NW
caohua

TGR5在促进肠道蠕动,触觉,痛觉,炎症,肝功能,

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GPBA: a GPCR for bile acids and an emerging therapeutic target for disorders of digestion and sensation.

Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;171(5):1156-66

Authors: Lieu T, Jayaweera G, Bunnett NW

Abstract
Bile acids (BAs) are digestive secretions that are necessary for the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. Given the episodic nature of BA secretion and intestinal re-absorption, the circulating and tissue levels of BAs, like those of the gut hormones, fluctuate in fasting and fed states, and BA levels and forms are markedly affected by disease. BAs exert widespread hormonal-like effects by activating receptors in the nucleus and at the plasma membrane. The nuclear steroid receptors mediate the genomic actions of BAs on BA, glucose and lipid homeostasis. GPBA (TGR5) is a G-protein coupled plasma membrane receptor for BAs that mediates many of the rapid, non-genomic actions of BAs. GPBA has been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis, inflammation and liver functions. Recent observations have revealed an unexpected role for GPBA in the nervous system. GPBA is expressed by enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells that control peristalsis, and GPBA mediates the prokinetic actions of BAs in the colon that have been known for millennia. GPBA is also present on primary spinal afferent and spinal neurons that are necessary for sensory transduction. BA-induced activation of GPBA in the sensory nervous system promotes scratching behaviours and analgesia, which may contribute to the pruritus and painless jaundice that are observed in some patients with chronic cholestatic disease, where circulating BA concentrations are markedly increased. Thus, GPBA has emerged as an intriguing target for diverse metabolic, inflammatory, digestive and sensory disorders, where agonists and antagonists may be of value.

PMID: 24111923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

05 Dec 14:28

Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in macrophages is modulated by docosahexaenoic acid via interactions with free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4).

by Li X, Yu Y, Funk CD
caohua

DHA通过gpr120途径减少COX-2的表达

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Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in macrophages is modulated by docosahexaenoic acid via interactions with free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4).

FASEB J. 2013 Dec;27(12):4987-97

Authors: Li X, Yu Y, Funk CD

Abstract
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandins are implicated in numerous inflammatory disorders. The purpose of these studies was to examine previously unexplored interactions between COX-2 induction and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) signaling pathway in murine RAW 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DHA dose (IC50=18 μM)- and time-dependently reduced COX-2 expression, without affecting COX-1. DHA (25 μM for 24 h) decreased LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by 81%, primarily through reducing COX-2 (60%), as well as down-regulating microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (46%), but independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. FFA4 knockdown abrogated DHA effects on COX-2 induction, PGE2 production, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene expression. In the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism via COX-2, 12/15-lipoxygenase and CYP450s (rofecoxib (1 μM), PD146176 (2 μM), or MS-PPOH (20 μM)), DHA was still effective in attenuating COX-2 induction. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 signaling via Akt/JNK phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation was repressed by DHA-activated FFA4 coupling with β-arrestin 2, which was reversed by FFA4 knockdown. These data support DHA modulation of COX-2 expression and activity, in part, via FFA4, which provides a new mechanistic explanation for some of the anti-inflammatory effects of DHA.

PMID: 24005906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]